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Herbicide Residues and Weed Species Shifts on Modified-Soil Field Plots

  • J. B. Weber (a1), J. A. Best (a1) and W. W. Witt (a1)

Abstract

A Shubata soil was modified by the addition of organic matter or montmorillonite clay. Three annual applications of fluometuron [1,1-dimethyl-3-(α,α,α-trifluro-m-tolyl)urea], prometryne [2,4-bis(isopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-s-triazine], and trifluralin (α,α,α-trifluro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) were made and soil samples analyzed at the end of the third year. Less than 0.05 ppm prometryne was found in the subsoils. Prometryne present (by chemical analysis) in the surface soils ranged from 2% (of that originally applied) in the soil without additives to 20% in the soils modified with organic matter and clay. Approximately 12% of the prometryne present in the soil modified with organic matter and 32% of that in the soil modified with clay was detectable by bioassay. Trifluralin concentration (by chemical analysis) ranged from 2% in the soil without additives and soil modified with clay to 11% in the soil modified with organic matter. Approximately 100% of the trifluralin in soil without additives and soil modified with clay was detectable by bioassay while only 15% of that present in soil modified with organic matter was biologically detectable. Fluometuron was presented in the soils in amounts ranging from 0.6 to 1.9% of that applied. Prometryne and fluometuron greatly decreased the large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] population and increased the population of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.) and crowfootgrass [Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Richter]. Trifluralin greatly decreased large crabgrass and crowfootgrass populations, but the plots became completely infested with yellow nutsedge. Horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq.] became the overall dominant species the first year after the field was taken out of production. Yellow nutsedge, bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], and other grasses were also prevalent.

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References

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1. Keever, C. 1950. Causes of succession on old fields of the Piedmont, North Carolina. Ecol. Mono. 20:229250.
2. Santelmann, P.W. 1971. Herbicide bioassay, Pages 97102, In Wilkinson, R.E., ed. Research Methods in Weed Science. S. Weed Sci. Soc., POP Enterprises, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
3. Weber, J.B. 1971. Model soil systems, herbicide leaching, and sorption; Pages 145160, In Wilkinson, R.E., ed. Research Methods in Weed Science. S. Weed Sci. Soc., POP Enterprises, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
4. Weber, J.B., Perry, P.W., and Ibaraki, K. 1968. Effect of pH on the phytotoxicity of prometryne applied to synthetic soil media. Weed Sci. 16:134136.
5. Weber, J.B., Weed, S.B., and Waldrep, T.W. 1973. Effect of soil constituents on herbicide activity in modified-soil field plots. Weed Sci. (approved for publication).

Herbicide Residues and Weed Species Shifts on Modified-Soil Field Plots

  • J. B. Weber (a1), J. A. Best (a1) and W. W. Witt (a1)

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