Skip to main content Accessibility help

Halosulfuron Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Tuber Production and Viability

  • Theodore M. Webster (a1) and Timothy L. Grey (a2)


Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit underused portions of that system. Reducing the effect of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g., seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nutsedge is a problematic weed around the globe, persisting between growing seasons as tubers in the soil. Halosulfuron is an effective herbicide for controlling purple nutsedge foliage and is used in corn and several vegetable crops. Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various rates of halosulfuron on purple nutsedge tuber production. Single, presprouted purple nutsedge tubers were transplanted into outdoor microplots and treated after 6 wk of growth with six rates of halosulfuron (7 to 208 g ai ha−1) POST with a nontreated control (NTC). All shoots that had emerged at the time of application were marked with plastic rings; this allowed for classification of tubers at exhumation of (1) tubers attached to shoots that had emerged by the time of application, (2) tubers attached to shoots that emerged after application, and (3) tubers without an aerial shoot during the study. Seven weeks after application, the tubers in the microplots were exhumed and tubers were classified, quantified, and their ability to sprout was evaluated. In the NTC, there were 530 total tubers, with a log-logistic regression model describing the tuber population with increasing halosulfuron rate. The rate of halosulfuron that reduced total tuber population 50% (I 50) was 8 g ha−1. In the NTC, 200 tubers were attached to shoots that emerged following halosulfuron application, and this class of tubers had an I 50 of 19 g ha−1. Viability of tubers with shoots that emerged following halosulfuron application was 28% at the 52 g ha−1 halosulfuron, suggesting the action of the herbicide may have rendered the tuber nonviable after new shoots were produced. The final classification of tubers was those that did not have an aerial shoot during the study. These were tubers in which apical dominance suppressed shoot development or were likely the most-recent tubers to develop. Of the three classes, the tubers without shoots were the most numerous in the NTC, with 294 tubers and an I 50 of 1 g ha−1. Halosulfuron is an effective herbicide that not only controls purple nutsedge foliage but also reduces the number of new tubers produced and overall tuber viability. This could be an important component to reduce the long-term population density of the weed.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Askew, SD, Wilcut, JW (2001) Tropic croton interference in cotton. Weed Sci. 49:184189
Brandenberger, LP, Talbert, RE, Wiedenfeld, RP, Shrefler, JW, Webber, CL, Malik, MS (2005) Effects of halosulfuron on weed control in commercial honeydew crops. Weed Technol. 19:346350
Chase, CA, Sinclair, TR, Shilling, DG, Gilreath, JP, Locascio, SJ (1998) Light effects on rhizome morphogenesis in nutsedges (Cyperus spp): implications for control by soil solarization. Weed Sci. 46:575580
Csinos, AS, Webster, TM, Sumner, DR, Johnson, AW, Dowler, CC, Seebold, KW (2002) Application and crop safety parameters for soil fumigants. Crop Prot. 21:973982
Culpepper, AS (2013) Commercial vegetable weed control. Pages 782838 in Horton, D, ed. Georgia Pest Management Handbook. Commercial Edition. Athens, GA University of Georgia, Cooperative Extension Service Special Bulletin 28
Dittmar, PJ, Monks, DW, Schultheis, JR, Jennings, KM (2008) Effects of postemergence and postemergence-directed halosulfuron on triploid watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Weed Technol. 22:467471
Earl, HJ, Ferrell, JA, Vencill, WK, van Iersel, MW, Czarnota, MA (2004) Effects of three herbicides on whole-plant carbon fixation and water use by yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci. 52:213216
Felix, J, Newberry, G (2012) Yellow nutsedge control and reduced tuber production with s-metolachlor, halosulfuron plus dicamba, and glyphosate in furrow-irrigated corn. Weed Technol. 26:213219
Gallandt, ER (2006) How can we target the weed seedbank? Weed Sci. 54:588596
Glantz, SA, Slinker, BK (2001) Primer of Applied Regression and Analysis of Variance. 2nd edn. New York McGraw-Hill. Pp 2528
Grichar, WJ, Besler, BA, Brewer, KD (2003) Purple nutsedge control and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tolerance to sulfentrazone and halosulfuron. Weed Technol. 17:485490
Hammerton, JL (1974) Experiments with Cyperus rotundus L, I: growth and development and effects of 2,4-D and paraquat. Weed Res. 14:365369
Holm, LG, Plucknett, DL, Pancho, JV, Herberger, JP (1977) The World's Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. Honolulu University Press of Hawaii. 609 p
Jasieniuk, M, Maxwell, BD, Anderson, RL, Evans, JO, Lyon, DJ, Miller, SD, Morishita, DW, Ogg, AG, Seefeldt, S, Stahlman, PT, Northam, FE, Westra, P, Kebede, Z, Wicks, GA (1999) Site-to-site and year-to-year variation in Triticum aestivum-Aegilops cylindrica interference relationships. Weed Sci. 47:529537
Johnson, WC III, Mullinix, BG (2002) Weed management in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) transplanted on polyethylene-covered seedbeds. Weed Technol. 16:860866
Johnson, WC III, Mullinix, BG (2005) Effect of herbicide application method on weed management and crop injury in transplanted cantaloupe production. Weed Technol. 19:108112
Keeley, PE, Thullen, RJ (1983) Influence of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus)—free periods on yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Weed Sci. 31:803807
MacRae, AW, Culpepper, AS, Batts, RB, Lewis, KL (2008) Seeded watermelon and weed response to halosulfuron applied preemergence and postemergence. Weed Technol. 22:8690
MacRae, AW, Monks, DW, Batts, RB, Thorton, AC, Schultheis, JR (2007) Sweetpotato tolerance to halosulfuron applied postemergence. Weed Technol. 21:993996
Mercado, BL (1979) Monograph on Cyperus rotundus L. Biotrop Bull. 15:163
Molin, WT, Maricic, AA, Khan, RA, Mancino, CF (1999) Effect of MON 12037 on the growth and tuber viability of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Technol. 13:15
Mortensen, DA, Bastiaans, L, Sattin, M (2000) The role of ecology in the development of weed management systems: an outlook. Weed Res. 40:4962
Motulsky, H, Christopoulos, A (2004) Fitting models to biological data using linear and nonlinear regression: a practical guide to curve fitting. Oxford, U.K. Oxford University Press. 351 p
Neeser, C, Aguero, R, Swanton, CJ (1997) Survival and dormancy of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tubers. Weed Sci. 45:784790
Nelson, KA, Renner, KA (2002) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control and tuber production with glyphosate and ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Technol. 16:512519
Noling, JW, Buchanon, S, Schumann, AW (2009) Impacts of EPA proposed buffer zone restrictions for use of soil fumigants on Florida strawberry acreage and production. Acta Hortic. 824:351360
Patterson, DT (1998) Suppression of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) with polyethylene film mulch. Weed Technol. 12:275280
Ragsdale, NN, Wheeler, WB (1995) Methyl bromide: risks, benefits, and current status in pest control. Rev Pestic Toxicol. 3:2144
Rao, JS (1968) Studies on the development of tubers in nutgrass and their starch content at different depths of soil. Madras Agric J. 55:1823
Ritz, C, Pipper, CB, Streibig, JC (2013) Analysis of germination data from agricultural experiments. Eur J Agron. 45:16
Schneider, SM, Rosskopf, EN, Leesch, JG, Chellemi, DO, Bull, CT, Mazzola, M (2003) United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service research on alternatives to methyl bromide: pre-plant and post-harvest. Pest Manag Sci. 59:814826
Seefeldt, SS, Jensen, JE, Fuerst, EP (1995) Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol. 9:218227
Senseman, SA (2007) Herbicide Handbook. 9th ed. edn. Lawrence, KS Weed Science Society of America. 458 p
Siriwardana, G, Nishimoto, RK (1987) Propagules of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) in soil. Weed Technol. 1:217220
Smith, EV, Fick, GL (1937) Nutgrass eradication studies I. Relation of the life history of nutgrass, Cyperus rotundus L., to possible methods of control. Agron J. 29:10071013
Stoller, EW, Bhan, VM, Nema, DP (1972) Yellow nutsedge tuber germination and seedling development. Weed Sci. 20:9397
Thullen, RJ, Keeley, PE (1975) Yellow nutsedge sprouting and respouting potential. Weed Sci. 23:333337
Vencill, WK, Richburg, JS, Wilcut, JW, Hawf, LR (1995) Effect of Mon-12037 on purple (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow (Cyperus esculentus) nutsedge. Weed Technol. 9:148152
Wallace, RD, Grey, TL, Webster, TM, Vencill, WK (2013) Increased purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber sprouting with diurnally fluctuating temperatures. Weed Sci. 61:126130
Webster, TM (2005a) Mulch type affects growth and tuber production of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Sci. 53:834838
Webster, TM (2005b) Patch expansion of purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) with and without polyethylene mulch. Weed Sci. 53:839845
Webster, TM (2010) Weed survey—southern states: vegetable, fruit and nut crops subsection. Proc South Weed Sci Soc. 63:246257
Webster, TM, Csinos, AS, Johnson, AW, Dowler, CC, Sumner, DR, Fery, RL (2001) Methyl bromide alternatives in a bell pepper-squash rotation. Crop Prot. 20:605614
Webster, TM, Culpepper, AS (2005) Halosulfuron has a variable effect on cucurbit growth and yield. Hortscience. 40:707710
Webster, TM, Grey, TL, Davis, JW, Culpepper, AS (2008) Glyphosate hinders purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) tuber production. Weed Sci. 56:735742


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Halosulfuron Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) Tuber Production and Viability

  • Theodore M. Webster (a1) and Timothy L. Grey (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.