Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Increases Herbicide Use, Tillage, and Hand-Weeding in Georgia Cotton

  • Lynn M. Sosnoskie (a1) and A. Stanley Culpepper (a1)

Abstract

In 2005, the existence of glyphosate-resistance in Palmer amaranth was confirmed at a single 250 ha field site in Macon County, Georgia. Currently, all cotton producing counties in Georgia are infested, to some degree, with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In 2010 and 2011, surveys were administered to Georgia growers and extension agents to determine how the development of glyphosate-resistance has affected weed management in cotton. According to respondents, the numbers of cotton acres that were treated with paraquat, glufosinate and residual herbicides effective against Palmer amaranth more than doubled between 2000 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010. Glyphosate use declined between 2000 to 2005 and 2006 to 2010 although, on average, the active ingredient was still applied to a majority of cotton acres. Although grower herbicide input costs have more than doubled following the evolution and spread of glyphosate resistance, chemically-based control of Palmer amaranth is still not adequate. As a consequence, Georgia cotton growers hand weeded 52% of the crop at an average cost of $57 per hand-weeded ha; this represents a cost increase of at least 475% as compared to the years prior to resistance. In addition to increased herbicide use and hand weeding, growers in Georgia are also using mechanical, in-crop cultivation (44% of acres), tillage for the incorporation of preplant herbicides (20% of the acres), and post-harvest deep-turning (19% of the acres every three years) for weed control. Current weed management systems are more diverse, complex and expensive than those employed only a decade ago, but are effective at controlling glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in glyphosate-resistant cotton. The success of these programs may be related to producers improved knowledge about herbicide resistance, and the biological attributes that make Palmer amaranth so challenging, as well as their ability to implement their management programs in a timely manner.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Corresponding author's e-mail: stanley@uga.edu

References

Hide All
Anonymous (2013a) Gramoxone Inteon herbicide label. Greensboro, NC Syngenta Crop Protection. Pp 155. EPA Reg. No. 100-1217
Anonymous (2013b) Roundup WeatherMax herbicide label. St. Louis, MS Monsanto Company. Pp 154. EPA Reg. No. 524–537
Bonny, S (2008) Genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybean in the USA: adoption factors, impacts and prospects. A review. Agron Sustain Dev. 28:2132
Brookes, G, Barfoot, P (2010) GM crops: global socio-economic and environmental impacts 1996–2008. http://www.pgeconomics.co.uk. Accessed: 2 January, 2013
Burke, I, Wilcut, J (2004) Weed management in cotton with CGA-362622, fluometuron, and pyrithiobac. Weed Technol. 18:268276
Coetzer, E, Al-Khalib, K, Peterson, DE (2002) Glufosinate efficacy on Amaranthus species in glufosinate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Technol. 16:326331
Collins, G, Whitaker, J (2013) Variety Selection. 2013 Georgia Cotton Production Guide. UGA Extension Pub. # CSS-13-01. Athens, GA University of Georgia Press. 15 p.
Culpepper, AS, Grey, TL, Vencill, WK, Kichler, JM, Webster, TM, Brown, SM, York, C, Davis, JW, Hanna, WW (2006) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) confirmed in Georgia. Weed Sci. 54:620626
Culpepper, AS, Sosnoskie, LM (2011) Cotton – Weed control. 2011 Georgia Pest Management Handbook – Commercial Edition. UGA Research-Extension Special Bulletin 28. Athens, GA University of Georgia Press. Pp7188
Culpepper, AS, Webster, TM, Sosnoskie, LM, York, AC (2010) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in the United States. Pages 195204 in Nandula, VK, ed. Glyphosate Resistance in Crops and Weeds: History, Development and Management. 1st edn. Hoboken, NJ J. Wiley
Dill, GM (2005) Glyphosate-resistant crop: history, status and future. Pest Manag Sci. 61:219224
Dill, GM, CaJacob, CA, Padgette, SR (2008) Glyphosate-resistant crops; adoption, use and future considerations. Pest Manag Sci. 64:326331
Duke, SO (2005) Taking stock of herbicide-resistant crops ten years after introduction. Pest Manage Sci. 61:211218
Duke, SO, Scheffler, BE, Dayan, FE, Dyer, WE (2002) Genetic engineering crops for improved weed management traits. Crop Biotech. 829:5266
Ferrell, JA, Witt, WW (2002) Comparison of glyphosate and other herbicides for weed control in corn (Zea mays): efficacy and economics. Weed Technol. 16:701706
Gianessi, LP (2005) Economic and herbicide use impacts of glyphosate-resistant crops. Pest Manag Sci. 61:241245
Givens, WA, Shaw, DR, Kruger, GR, Johnson, WG, Weller, SC, Young, BG, Wilson, RG, Owen, MDK, Jordan, D (2009a) Survey of tillage trends following the adoption of glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol. 23:150155
Givens, WA, Shaw, DR, Kruger, GR, Johnson, WG, Weller, SC, Young, BG, Wilson, RG, Owen, MDK, Jordan, D (2009b) A grower survey of herbicide use patterns in glyphosate-resistant cropping systems. Weed Technol. 23:156161
Green, JM (2012) The benefits of herbicide-resistant crops. Pest Manage Sci. 68:13231331
Heap, IM (2013) International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. www.weedscience.org. Accessed: 25 January, 2013
James, C (2012) Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2012. Brief No. 44. Ithaca, NY ISAAA
Johnson, WC, Mullinex, BG Jr. 2002) Weed management in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) transplanted on polyethylene-covered seed beds. Weed Technol. 16:860866
Keeley, PE, Carter, CH, Thullen, RJ (1987) Influence of planting date on growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Weed Sci. 35:1992004
Kichler, J, Culpepper, AS, Chapin, J (2010) Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and cotton response to residual at-plant herbicides applied on the soil surface or preplant incorporated. Pages 1535 in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference. Memphis, TN Nat Cotton Counc Am
Kichler, J, Culpepper, AS, Chapin, J (2010) Tillage influences Palmer amaranth control by Reflex. Pages 1553 in Proceedings of the Beltwide Cotton Conference. Memphis, TN Nat. Cotton Counc Am
Kuiper, HA, Kleter, GA, Noordam, MY (2000) Risks of the release of transgenic herbicide-resistant plants with respect to humans, animals and the environment. Crop Prot. 19:773778
Lancaster, SH, Jordan, DL, Spears, JF, York, AC, Wilcut, JW, Monks, DW, Batts, RB, Brandenburg, RL (2005) Sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) control and seed production after 2,4-DB applied alone and with fungicides and insecticides. Weed Technol. 19:451455
Marshall, G (1998) Herbicide-tolerant crops — real farmer opportunity or potential environmental problem Pestic. Sci. 52:394402
Martino-Catt, SJ, Feng, PCC, Padgette, SR (2012) Genetically Modified Herbicide Resistant Crops. Pages 399435 in Krämer, W, Schirmer, U, Jeschke, P, and Witschel, M, eds. Modern Crop Protection Compounds, Volumes 1–3, 2nd edn. Weinheim, Germany Wiley
Norsworthy, JK, Griffith, GM, Scott, RC, Smith, KL, Oliver, LR (2008) Confirmation and control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in Arkansas. Weed Technol. 22:108113
Radosevich, SR, Ghersa, CM, Comstock, G (1992) Concerns a weed scientist might have about herbicide-tolerant crops. Weed Technol. 6:635639
Riches, CR, Valverde, BE (2002) Agricultural and biological diversity in Latin America: implications for development, testing, and commercialization of herbicide resistant crops. Weed Technol. 16:200214
Shaner, DL (2000) The impact of glyphosate-tolerant crops on the use of other herbicides and on resistance management. Pest Manage Sci. 56:320326
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture (2004) Acreage. http://usda01.library.cornell.edu/usda/nass/Acre//2000s/2004/Acre-06-30-2004.pdf. Accessed: February 13, 2013
[USDA] United States Department of Agriculture (2012) Acreage. (http://www.usda01.library.cornell.edu/usda/current/Acre/Acre-06-29-2012.pdf. Accessed: February 13, 2013
Vencill, WK, Prostko, EP, Webster, TE (2002) Is Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) resistant to ALS and dinitroaniline herbicides? Proc South Weed Sci Soc. 55:189
Weber, J (1990) Behavior of dinitroanaline herbicides in the soil. Weed Technol. 4:394406
Webster, TM (2001) Weed survey — Southern states: broadleaf crops subsection. Proc South Weed Sci Soc. 54:244259
Webster, TM (2005) Weed survey — Southern states: broadleaf crops subsection. Proc South Weed Sci Soc. 58:291306
Webster, TM (2009) Weed survey — Southern states: broadleaf crops subsection. Proc South Weed Sci Soc. 62:509524
Wise, AM, Grey, TL, Prostko, EP, Vencill, WK, Webster, TM (2009) Establishing the geographic distribution level of acetolactate synthase resistance of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri) accessions in Georgia. Weed Technol. 23:214220
Whitaker, JR, York, AC, Jordan, DL, Culpepper, AS, Sosnoskie, LM (2011) Residual herbicides for Palmer amaranth control. J Cotton Sci. 15:8999
Wolfe, K, Luke-Morgan, A (2011) 2010 Georgia Farm Gate Value Report. Athens, GA University of Georgia, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. AR-11-01
York, AC (2012) Weed management in cotton. 2012 Cotton Information. NCSU University Extension Pub. http://www.cotton.ncsu.edu/. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University Press. Pp 66123
Young, BG (2006) Changes in herbicide use patterns and production practices resulting from glyphosate-resistant crops. Weed Technol. 20:301307

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed