Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Evidence for Reduced Glyphosate Efficacy on Acetolactate Synthase–Inhibiting Herbicide-Resistant Yellow Nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus)

  • Parsa Tehranchian (a1), Jason K. Norsworthy (a1), Matheus Palhano (a1), Nicholas E. Korres (a1), Scott McElroy (a2), Hui Zhang (a2), Muthukumar V. Bagavathiannan (a3) and Robert C. Scott (a1)...


A yellow nutsedge biotype (Res) from an Arkansas rice field has evolved resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. The Res biotype previously exhibited cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors from four chemical families (imidazolinone, pyrimidinyl benzoate, sulfonylurea, and triazolopyrimidine). Experiments were conducted to evaluate alternative herbicides (i.e., glyphosate, bentazon, propanil, quinclorac, and 2,4-D) currently labeled in Arkansas rice–soybean production systems. Based on the percentage of aboveground dry weight reduction, control of the yellow nutsedge biotypes with the labeled rate of bentazon, propanil, quinclorac, and 2,4-D was < 44%. Glyphosate (867 g ae ha−1) resulted in 68 and > 94% control of the Res and susceptible yellow nutsedge biotypes, respectively, at 28 d after treatment. Dose-response studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of glyphosate on the Res biotype, three susceptible yellow nutsedge biotypes, and purple nutsedge. Based on the dry weights, the Res biotype was ≥ 5- and ≥ 1.3-fold less responsive to glyphosate compared to the susceptible biotypes and purple nutsedge, respectively. Differences in absorption and translocation of radiolabeled glyphosate were observed among the yellow nutsedge biotypes and purple nutsedge. The susceptible biotype had less 14C-glyphosate radioactivity in the tissues above the treated leaf and greater radioactivity in tissues below the treated leaf compared to the Res biotype and purple nutsedge. Reduced translocation of glyphosate in tissues below the treated leaf of the Res biotype could be a reason for the lower glyphosate efficacy in the Res biotype. No amino acid substitution that would correspond to glyphosate resistance was found in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene of the Res biotype. However, an amino acid (serine) addition was detected in the EPSPS gene of the Res biotype; albeit, it is not believed that this addition contributes to lower efficacy of glyphosate in this biotype.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Associate Editor for this paper: Timothy Grey, University of Georgia.



Hide All
Abouziena, HF, Elmergawi, RA, Sharma, S, Omar, A, Singh, A (2009) Zinc antagonizes glyphosate efficacy on yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci 57: 1620
Ackley, JA, Wilson, HP, Hines, TE (1996) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control POST with acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides. Weed Technol 10: 576580
Akin, DS, Shaw, DR (2001) Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control in glyphosate-tolerant soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 15: 564570
Askew, SD, Wilcut, JW, Langston, VB (1999) Weed management in soybean (Glycine max) with preplant-incorporated herbicides and cloransulam-methyl. Weed Technol 13: 276282
Bagavathiannan, MV, Norsworthy, JK, Tehranchian, P, Riar, DS (2015) Acetolacatate Synthase-Inhibitor resistance in yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.): I—Phenotypic differences. Weed Sci 63: 810818
Bariuan, JV, Reddy, KN, Wills, GD (1999) Glyphosate injury, rainfastness, absorption, and translocation in purple nutsedge. Weed Technol 13: 111119
Burgos, NR, Tranel, PJ, Streibig, JC, Davis, VM, Shaner, D, Norsworthy, JK, Ritz, C (2013) Confirmation of resistance to herbicides and evaluation of resistance levels. Weed Sci 61: 420
Burke, IC, Troxler, SC, Wilcut, JW, Smith, WD (2008) Purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus) response to postemergence herbicides in cotton. Weed Technol 22: 615621
Culpepper, AS, Webster, TM, York, AC, Barentine, RM, Mullinix, BG Jr (2004) Glyphosate/MSMA mixture in glyphosate-resistant cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). J Cotton Sci 8: 124129
Dayan, FE, Green, HM, Weete, JD, Hancock, HG (1996) Postemergence activity of sulfentrazone: effects of surfactants and leaf surfaces. Weed Sci 44: 797803
DeFelice, MS (2002) Yellow nutsedge Cyperus esculentus L.—snack food of the Gods. Weed Technol 16: 901907
Devendra, R (2014) Enhanced glyphosate translocation by 2,4-D to control purple nutsedge. Indian J Weed Sci 46: 203204
Dinelli, G, Marotti, I, Catizone, P, Bonetti, A, Urbano, JM, Barnes, J (2008) Physiological and molecular basis of glyphosate resistance in C. bonariensis (L.) Cronq. biotypes from Spain. Weed Res 48: 257265
Dowler, CC (1998) Weed survey—southern states, broadleaf crops subsection. Proceedings Southern Weed Science Society 48: 290305
Felix, J, Dauer, JT, Hulting, AG, Mallory-Smith, C (2012) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) growth and tuber production in response to increasing rates and selected adjuvants. Weed Technol 26: 95101
Gitsopoulos, TK, Froud-Williams, RJ (2004) Effects of oxadiargyl on direct-seeded rice and Echinochloa crus-galli under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Weed Res 44: 329334
Grabherr, MG, Haas, BJ, Yassour, M, Levin, JZ, Thompson, DA, Amit, I et al. (2011) Full-length transcriptome assembly from RNA-seq data without a reference genome. Nat Biotechnol 29: 644652
Grichar, WJ, Nester, PR, Colburn, AE (1992) Nutsedge (Cyperus spp.) control in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) with imazethapyr. Weed Technol 6: 369400
Haas, BJ, Papanicolaou, A, Yassour, M, Grabnerr, M, Blood, PD, Bowden, J, Couger, MB, Eccles, D, Li, B, Lieber, M, Macmanes, MD, Ott, M, Orvis, J, Pochet, N, Strozi, F, Weeks, N, Westerman, R, William, T, Dewey, CN, Henschel, R, Leduc, RD, Friedman, N, Regev, A (2013) De novo transcript sequence reconstruction from RNA-sequencing the Trinity platform for reference generation and analysis. Nat Prot 8: 14941512
Hoss, NE, Al-Khatib, K, Peterson, DE, Loughin, TM (2003) Efficacy of glyphosate, glufosinate, and imazethapyr on selected weed species. Weed Sci 51: 110117
Johnson, BJ (1975) Purple nutsedge control with bentazon and perfluidone in turfgrasses. Weed Sci 23: 349353
Keeley, PE, Carter, CH, Thullen, RJ (1985) Influence of glyphosate on resprouting of parent tubers of Cyperus esculentus . Weed Sci 34: 2529
Korres, NE, Norsworthy, JK (2015) Influence of a rye cover crop on the critical period for weed control in cotton. Weed Sci 63: 346352
Marble, SC, Prior, SA, Runion, GB, Torbert, HA (2015) Control of yellow and purple nutsedge in elevated CO2 environments with glyphosate and halosulfuron. Front Plant Sci 6: 16
Nandula, VK, Reddy, KN, Poston, DH, Rimando, AM, Duke, SO (2008) Glyphosate tolerance mechanism in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) from Mississippi. Weed Sci 56: 344349
Nandula, VK, Vencill, WK (2015) Herbicide absorption and translocation in plants using radioisotopes. Weed Sci 63: 140151
Nelson, KA, Renner, KA, Penner, D (2002) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control and tuber yield with glyphosate and glufosinate. Weed Technol 16: 360365
Norsworthy, JK, Bond, J, Scott, RC (2013) Weed management practices and needs in Arkansas and Mississippi rice. Weed Technol 27: 623630
Patzoldt, WL, Hager, AG, McCormick, JS, Tranel, PJ (2006) A codon deletion confers resistance to herbicides inhibiting protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 33: 1232912334
Pereira, W, Crabtree, G (1986) Absorption, translocation and toxicity of glyphosate and oxyfluorfen in yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci 34: 923929
Pereira, W, Crabtree, G, William, RD (1987) Herbicide action on purple and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus and C. esculentus). Weed Technol 1: 9297
Ransom, CV, Rice, CA, Shock, CC (2009) Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) growth and reproduction in response to nitrogen and irrigation. Weed Sci 57: 2125
Rao, AS, Reddy, KN (1999) Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) response to glyphosate mixtures with ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Technol 13: 361366
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Johnson, DB, Scott, RC, Bagavathiannan, MV (2011) Glyphosate resistance in a johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) biotype from Arkansas. Weed Sci 59: 299304
Ribeiro, DN, Nandula, VK, Dayan, FE, Rimando, AM, Duke, SO, Reddy, KN, Shaw, DR (2015). Possible glyphosate tolerance mechanism in pitted morningglory (Ipomoea lacunose L.). J Agric Food Chem 63: 16891697
Schabenberger, O, Tharp, BE, Kellis, JJ, Penner, D (1999) Statistical test for hormesis and effective dosage in herbicide dose-response. Agron J 91: 713721
Stoller, EW, Wax, LM, Matthiesen, RL (1975) Response of yellow nutsedge and soybeans to bentazon, glyphosate, and perfluidone. Weed Sci 23: 215221
Tayyar, RI, Nguyen, JHT, Holt, JS (2003) Genetic and morphological analysis of two novel nutsedge biotypes from California. Weed Sci 51: 731739
Tehranchian, P, Norsworthy, JK, Bagavathiannan, MV, Riar, DS (2015) Acetolactate Synthase-Inhibitor resistance in yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.): II—physiognomy and photoperiodic response. Weed Sci 63: 819827
Tehranchian, P, Norsworthy, JK, Nandula, V, McElroy, S, Chen, S, Scott, RC (2014) First report of resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus): confirmation and characterization. Pest Manag Sci 71: 12741280
Tharp, BE, Kells, JJ (1999) Influence of herbicide application rate, timing, and interrow cultivation on weed control and corn (Zea mays) yield in glufosinate-resistant and glyphosate-resistant corn. Weed Technol 13: 807813
Wakelin, AM, Lorraine-Colwill, DF, Preston, C (2004) Glyphosate resistance in four different populations of Lolium rigidum as associated with reduced translocation of glyphosate to meristematic zones. Weed Res 44: 453459
Webster, TM (2005) Mulch type affects growth and tuber production of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus). Weed Sci 53: 834838
Webster, TM, Grey, TL, Davis, JW, Culpepper, AS (2008) Glyphosate hinders purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) tuber production. Weed Sci 56: 735742
Wilcut, JW (1998) Influence of pyrithiobac sodium on purple (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus). Weed Sci 46: 111115
Wilcut, JW, Richburg, JS III, Eastin, EF, Wiley, GR, Walls, FR, Newell, S (1994). Imazethapyr and paraquat systems for weed management in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Sci 42: 601607
Wills, GD, Hoagland, RE, Paul, RN (1980) Anatomy of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus). Weed Sci 28: 432437
Zandstra, BH, Teo, CKH, Nishimoto, RK (1974) Response of purple nutsedge to repeated applications of glyphosate. Weed Sci 22: 230232



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed