Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Environmental Factors Affecting Germination of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

  • Rais U. Akanda (a1), J. Jeffrey Mullahey (a1) and Donn G. Shilling (a2)

Abstract

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effect of various factors on germination of tropical soda apple. Tropical soda apple seed were found to be moderately photoblastic with 30% germination occurring in the dark. Germination increased in response to green (545 nm) and red light (650 nm) to 75 and 66%, respectively, indicating phytochrome regulation. No germination occurred in response to blue (450 nm) and far-red light (750 nm). Germination increased from 4 to 64% between 10 to 30 C, but no germination was found at 5 and 40 C. Maximum germination occurred at 30 C. A second degree polynomial (Y= −48.7 + 7.9X – 0.2X2, R2 = 0.76) best fit the data. Seed germinated over a broad range of pH (2 to 14) with the highest germination occurring at pH 8 and no germination occurring at pH 2 and 14 (Y = −63.3 + 30.5X – 1.9X2, R2 = 0.95). Seed germination declined as osmotic potential increased from 0 to −1.0 MPa (Y = 76.7 – 12.9X + 5.2X2, R2 = 0.87). Seedling emergence was maximum from depth of 3 to 6 cm, but no seedling emergence occurred when seed were planted below 12 cm (Y = 10.2 + 17.8X – 1.6X2, R2 = 0.93). Optimum germination occurred at a depth of 5.6 cm. Mechanical and sulfuric acid scarification increased the rate of germination but not the overall percentage. Tap water or hot water increased the rate of germination 26% and KNO3, GA3, or ethephon increased it 53%. Tropical soda apple seed germinated in response to variable environmental and edaphic conditions which could allow establishment in diverse ecosystems.

Copyright

References

Hide All
1. Akanda, R. U., Mullahey, J. J., and Shilling, D. G. 1995. Factors affecting germination of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 48: 165.
2. Akanda, R. U., Mullahey, J. J., and Brown, W. F. 1995. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) seed survivability in the rumen. Proc. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. 35: 27.
3. Arreghini, R. I. 1972. Presowing treatment for seeds of calden (Prosopis caldenia Burk). Proc. of the Seventh World Forestry Cong. Buenos Aires. 2: 17701773.
4. Catalan, L. A. and Macchiavelli, R. E. 1991. Improving germination in Prosopis flexuosa and P. alba with hot water treatments and scarification. Seed Sci. and Technol. 19: 253262.
5. Chandra, V. and Srivastava, S. N. 1978. Solanum viarum Dunal syn. Solanum khasianum Clarke, a crop for production of solasadine. Indian Drugs. 16(31): 5360.
6. Clark, W. M. and Lubs, H. A. 1916. Hydrogen electrode potentials of phthalate, phosphate, and borate buffer mixtures. J. Biochem. 25: 479.
7. Egley, G. H. and Duke, S. O. 1984. Physiology of weed seed dormancy and germination. Pages 2764 in Duke, S. O. ed. Weed Physiology. Volume 1. Reproduction and Ecophysiology. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.
8. Jauzein, P. 1989. Photosensibilite des bromes annuels (Bromus L. spp.). Weed Res. 29: 5363.
9. Killian, S. and Marcon, S. 1983. Determination Prosopis spp. seed germination percentage. XV Annual plant Physiology Meeting. Tucurnan, Argentina. 86.
10. Macdonald, G. E., Brecke, B. J., and Shilling, D. G. 1992. Factors affecting germination of dogfennel (Eupatorium capillifolium) and yankeeweed (Eupatorium compositifolium). Weed Sci. 40: 424428.
11. Mayer, A. M. and Poljakoff-Mayber, A. 1982. Pages 2247 in The Germination of Seed. 3rd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford.
12. Mayer, A. M. and Poljakoff-Mayber, A. 1975. Pages 76109 in The germination of seed. Pergamon Press, NY.
13. Michel, B. E. 1983. Evaluation of the water potentials of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiol. 72: 6670.
14. Moore, R. P. 1973. Tetrazolium staining of assessing seed quality. Pages 347366 n Heydecker, W. (ed.). Seed Ecology. The Pennsylvania State Univ. Press, Univ. Park, PA.
15. Mullahey, J. J. and Cornell, J. 1994. Biology of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) an introduced weed in Florida. Weed Technol. 8: 465469.
16. Mullahey, J. J., Cornell, J. A., and Colvin, D. L. 1993. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum) Control. Weed Technol. 7: 723727.
17. Mullahey, J. J., Nee, M., Wunderlin, R. P., and Delaney, K. R. 1993. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum): A new weed threat in subtropical regions. Weed Technol. 7: 783786.
18. Nee, M. 1991. Synopsis of Solanum section Acanthophora: A revision of interest for glyco alkaloid. Pages 25266 in Hawkes, J. G., Lester, R. N., Nee, M., and Estrada, N., eds. Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey, UK.
19. Singh, M. and Achhireddy, N. R. 1984. Germination ecology of Milkweed-vine (Morrenia odorata). Weed Sci. 32: 781785.
20. Smith, H. and Whitelam, G. C. 1990. Phytochrome, a family of photoreceptors with multiple physiological roles. Plant, Cell and Environment. 13: 695707.
21. Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, G. C. 1967. Regression. Page 153 in Snedecor, G. W. and Cochran, G. C., eds. Statistical Methods. The Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, Iowa.
22. Taylorson, R. B. 1987. Environmental and chemical manipulation of weed seed dormancy. Rev. Weed Sci. 3: 135154.
23. Vincente, M. 1972. Germinacao de sementes de Solanum viarum Dunal. I: Tempo de armazenamento. Rev. Brasil Biol. 32: 585591.
24. Vincente, M. 1972. Germinacao de sementes de Solanum viarumDunal. II: Temperatura. Rev. Brasil Biol. 32: 355360.
25. Vincente, M. 1972. Germinacao de sementes de Solanum viarum Dunal. III: Luz. Rev. Brasil Biol. 32: 456463.
26. Winer, N. 1982. Germination of pretreated seed of mesquite (P. chilensis) under arid conditions in Northern Sudan. Forest Ecology and Management. 5: 307312.
27. Woolley, J. T., and Stoller, F. W. 1978. Light penetration and light-induced seed germination in soil. Plant Physiol. 61: 597.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed