Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Effects of Single- and Multiple-Weed Interference on Soybean Yield in the Far-Eastern Region of Russia

  • Jong-Seok Song (a1), Jin-Won Kim (a1), Ji-Hoon Im (a1), Kyu-Jong Lee (a1), Byun-Woo Lee (a1) and Do-Soon Kim (a1)...


Lack of understanding the effects of single- and multiple-weed interference on soybean yield has led to inadequate weed management in Primorsky Krai, resulting in much lower average yield than neighboring regions. A 2 yr field experiment was conducted in a soybean field located in Bogatyrka (43.82°N, 131.6°E), Primorsky Krai, Russia, in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of single and multiple interference caused by naturally established weeds on soybean yield and to model these effects. Aboveground dry weight was negatively affected the most by weed interference, followed by number of pods and seeds. Soybean yield under single-weed interference was best demonstrated by a rectangular hyperbolic model, showing that common ragweed and barnyardgrass were the most competitive weed species, followed by annual sowthistle, American sloughgrass, and common lambsquarters. In the case of multiple-weed interference, soybean yield loss was accurately described by a multivariate rectangular hyperbolic model, with total density equivalent as the independent variable. Parameter estimates indicated that weed-free soybean yields were similar in 2013 and 2014, i.e., estimated as 1.72 t and 1.75 t ha−1, respectively, and competitiveness of each weed species was not significantly different between the two years. Economic thresholds for single-weed interference were 0.74, 0.66, 1.15, 1.23, and 1.45 plants m−2 for common ragweed, barnyardgrass, annual sowthistle, American sloughgrass, and common lambsquarters, respectively. The economic threshold for multiple-weed interference was 0.70 density equivalent m−2. These results, including the model, thus can be applied to a decision support system for weed management in soybean cultivation under single and multiple-weed interference in Primorsky Krai and its neighboring regions of Russia.


Corresponding author

*Corresponding author’s E-mail:


Hide All

Associate Editor for this paper: John L. Lindquist, University of Nebraska



Hide All
Baysinger, JA, Sims, BD (1991) Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 39:358362
Beckett, TH, Stoller, EW, Wax, LM (1988) Interference of four annual weeds in corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci 36:764769
Bensch, CN, Horak, MJ, Peterson, D (2003) Interference of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), Palmer amaranthus (A. palmeri), and common waterhemp (A. rudis) in soybean. Weed Sci 51:3743
Berti, A, Sattin, M (1996) Effect of weed position on yield loss in soyabean and a comparison between relative weed cover and other regression models. Weed Res 36:249258
Berti, A, Zanin, G (1994) Density equivalent: a method for forecasting yield loss caused by mixed weed populations. Weed Res 34:327332
Bosnic, AC, Swanton, CJ (1997) Influence of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) time of emergence and density on corn (Zea mays). Weed Sci 45:276282
Burnside, OC, Colville, WL (1964) Yield components and composition of soybeans as affected by cultural and chemical weed control practices. Agron J 56:348351
Chikoye, D, Weise, SF, Swanton, CJ (1995) Influence of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) time of emergence and density on white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Weed Sci 43:375380
Chism, WJ, Birch, JB, Bingham, SW (1992) Regressions for analyzing growth stage and quinclorac interactions. Weed Technol 6:898903
Clewis, SB, Askew, SD, Wilcut, JW (2001) Common ragweed interference in peanut. Weed Sci 49:768772
Coble, HD, Williams, FM, Ritter, RL (1981) Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 29:339342
Cousens, R (1985) A simple model relating yield loss to weed density. Ann Appl Biol 107:239252
Cousens, R (1987) Theory and reality of weed control thresholds. Plant Protect Q 2:1320
Cowbrough, MJ, Brown, RB, Tardif, FJ (2003) Impact of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) aggregation on economic thresholds in soybean. Weed Sci 51:947954
[DAFPT] Department of Agriculture and Food of the Primorsky Territory (2012) Development of Agriculture and Market Regulation of Agricultural Products, Raw Materials and Food: Improving Living Standards of Rural Population of Primorsky Krai Accessed: May 18, 2016
Dieleman, A, Hamill, AS, Weise, SF, Swanton, CJ (1995) Empirical models of pigweed (Amaranthus spp.) interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 43:612618
Eaton, BJ, Feltner, KC, Russ, OG (1973) Venice mallow competition in soybeans. Weed Sci 21:8994
Eaton, BJ, Russ, OG, Feltner, KC (1976) Competition of velvetleaf, prickly sida, and Venice mallow in soybeans. Weed Sci 24:224228
Fellows, GM, Roeth, FW (1992) Shattercane (Sorghum bicolor) interference in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Sci 40:6873
[FAOSTAT] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2011) FAO Statistical Databases. Accessed: May 18, 2016
Gashkova, IV (2008) Glycine max (L.) Merr.—Soybean. In: Afonin AN, Greene SL, Dzyubenko NI, Frolov AN, eds. Interactive Agricultural Ecological Atlas of Russia and Neighboring Countries: Economic Plants and Their Diseases, Pests and Weeds [Online]. Accessed: May 18, 2016
Hager, A, Renner, K (1994) Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) control in soybean (Glycine max) with bentazon as influenced by imazethapyr or thifensulfuron tank-mixes. Weed Technol 8:766771
Han, J, Liu, H, Guo, P, Hao, C (2002) Weed control in summer-sown soybeans with flumioxazin plus acetochlor and flumiclorac-pentyl plus clethodim. Weed Biol Manag 2:120122
Harrison, SK (1990) Interference and seed production by common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 38:113118
Harrison, SK, Williams, CS, Wax, LM (1985) Interference and control of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 33:203208
Hock, SM, Knezevic, SZ, Martin, A, Lindquist, JL (2006a) Performance of WeedSOFT for predicting soybean yield loss. Weed Technol 20:478484
Hock, SM, Knezevic, SZ, Martin, A, Lindquist, JL (2006b) Soybean row spacing and weed emergence time influence weed competitiveness and competitive indices. Weed Sci 54:3846
Informa Economics (2013) China June Crop Area and Production Report. Accessed May 23, 2016
Kapusta, G (1979) Seedbed tillage and herbicide influence on soybean (Glycine max) weed control and yield. Weed Sci 27:520526
Knake, EL, Slife, FW (1962) Competition of Setaria faberii with corn and soybeans. Weeds 10:2627
Kim, DS, Marshall, EJP, Brain, P, Caseley, JC (2006a) Modeling interactions between herbicide dose and multiple weed species interference in crop-weed competition. Weed Res 46:175184
Kim, DS, Marshall, EJP, Brain, P, Caseley, JC (2006b) Modeling the effects of sub-lethal doses of herbicide and nitrogen fertilizer on crop-weed competition. Weed Res 46:492502
Lindquist, JL (2001) Performance of INTERCOM for predicting corn–velvetleaf interference across north-central United States. Weed Sci 49:195201
Lindquist, JL, Dieleman, JA, Mortensen, DA, Johnson, GA, Wyse-Pester, DY (1998) Economic importance of managing spatially heterogeneous weed population. Weed Technol 12:713
Lindquist, JL, Kropff, MJ (1996) Applications of an ecophysiological model for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa)–Echinochloa competition. Weed Sci 44:5256
Lindquist, JL, Mortensen, DA, Westra, P, Lambert, WJ, Bauman, TT, Fausey, JC, Kells, JJ, Langton, SJ, Harvey, RG, Bussler, BH, Banken, K, Clay, S, Forcella, F (1999) Stability of corn (Zea mays)–foxtail (Setaria spp.) interference relationships. Weed Sci 47:195200
Marra, MC, Carlson, GA (1983) An economic threshold model for weeds in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Sci 31:604609
Moon, BC, Cho, SH, Kwon, OD, Lee, SG, Lee, BW, Kim, DS (2010) Modelling rice competition with Echinochloa crus-galli and Eleocharis kuroguwai in transplanted rice cultivation. J Crop Sci Biotechnol 13:121126
Oveisi, M, Mashhadi, HR, Yousefi, AR, Alizade, H, Baghestani, MA, Gonzalez-Andujar, JL (2013) Predicting maize yield in a multiple species competition with Xanthium strumarium and Amaranthus retroflexus: comparing of approaches to modeling herbicide performance. Crop Prot 45:1521
Peterson, DE, Nalewaja, JD (1992) Green foxtail (Setaria viridis) competition with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Technol 6:291296
SAS (2011) SAS/STAT systems for Windows, v. 9.3. Cary, NC: SAS Institute
Sibuga, KP, Bandeen, JD (1980) Effects of green foxtail and lamb’s-quarters interference in field corn. Can J Plant Sci 60:14191425
Song, JS, Jung, JH, Kwon, JH, Lim, SH, Kim, DS (2013) Weed survey in soybean fields of Seoul Feed Farm in Primorsky-krai, Russia. Pages 147148 in Proceedings of the 33rd Korean Society of Weed Science Conference. Boseong, South Korea
Swinton, SM, Buhler, DD, Forcella, F, Gunsolus, JL, King, RP (1994) Estimation of crop yield loss due to interference by multiple weed species. Weed Sci 42:103109
Vail, GD, Oliver, LR (1993) Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) interference in soybeans (Glycine max). Weed Technol 7:220225
Weaver, SE (2001) Impact of lamb’s-quarters, common ragweed and green foxtail on yield of corn and soybean in Ontario. Can J Plant Sci 81:821828
Webster, TM, Loux, MM, Regnier, EE, Harrison, SK (1994) Giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) canopy architecture and interference studies in soybean (Glycine max). Weed Technol 8:559564
Yousefi, AR, Gonzalez-Andujar, JL, Alizadeh, H, Baghestani, MA, Rahimian Mashhadi, H, Karimmojeni, (2012) Interactions between reduced rate of imazethapyr and multiple weed species–soyabean interference in a semi-arid environment. Weed Res 11:174182
Zanin, G, Berti, A, Toniolo, L (1993) Estimation of economic thresholds for weed control in winter wheat. Weed Res 33:459467


Related content

Powered by UNSILO
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Song supplementary material
Table S1 and Figures S1-S4

 Word (763 KB)
763 KB

The Effects of Single- and Multiple-Weed Interference on Soybean Yield in the Far-Eastern Region of Russia

  • Jong-Seok Song (a1), Jin-Won Kim (a1), Ji-Hoon Im (a1), Kyu-Jong Lee (a1), Byun-Woo Lee (a1) and Do-Soon Kim (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.