Skip to main content Accessibility help

Effect of Planting Depth on Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Seedling Development and Response to Cyanazine

  • Thomas C. Mester (a1) and Douglas D. Buhler (a1)


Experiments were conducted in a growth chamber to determine the effects of planting depth on the developmental sequence of velvetleaf seedlings and the effect of cyanazine placement relative to velvetleaf planting depth on cyanazine toxicity. Velvetleaf seedling emergence was delayed when seeds were planted 6 cm deep compared to the 2- and 4-cm planting depths. Lateral roots did not appear until after the cotyledons had emerged and expanded. This was followed by secondary root emergence from the primary root which occurred before adventitious roots appeared from the hypocotyl for the 2- and 4-cm planting depths. The first true leaf did not unfold until after the secondary root system was well developed. The quantity of adventitious roots on the hypocotyl increased with increasing planting depth. Velvetleaf adventitious roots appeared to be involved in cyanazine toxicity when cyanazine was placed above the seed. Increasing planting depth increased the proportion of seedling absorptive tissue above compared to below the seed. This resulted in increased cyanazine exposure for the deeper planted velvetleaf seeds when herbicide was placed above the seed.



Hide All
1. Appleby, A. P. and Furtick, W. R. 1965. A technique for controlled exposure of emerging grass seedlings to soil-active herbicides. Weeds 13:172173.
2. Balyan, R. S. and Bhan, V. M. 1986. Germination of horse purslane (Trianthema portulacastrum) in relation to temperature, storage conditions, and seeding depth. Weed Sci. 34:513515.
3. Cole, A. W. 1976. Tall morningglory response to planting depth. Weed Sci. 24:489492.
4. Cole, A. W. and Coats, G. E. 1973. Tall morningglory germination response to herbicides and temperature. Weed Sci. 21:443446.
5. Dawson, J. H. 1963. Development of barnyardgrass seedlings and their response to EPTC Weeds 11:6067.
6. Dekker, J. and Meggitt, W. F. 1986. Field emergence of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) in relation to time and burial depth. Iowa State J. Res. 61:6580.
7. de la Cruz, R. 1974. Weed seedling emergence depths under field conditions. Ph.D. Dissertation. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA. 115 pp.
8. Eastin, E. F. 1983. Redweed (Melochia corchorifolia) germination as influenced by scarification, temperature, and seeding depth. Weed Sci. 31:229231.
9. Herr, D. E. and Stroube, E. W. 1970. Velvetleaf control as influenced by herbicide placement and seed depth. Weed Sci. 18:459461.
10. Nishimoto, R. K. and Warren, G. F. 1971. Shoot zone uptake and translocation of soil-applied herbicides. Weed Sci. 19:156161.
11. Walker, A. 1973. Vertical distribution of herbicides in soil and their availability to plants: Treatment of different proportions of the total root system. Weed Res. 13:416421.
12. Wax, L. M. 1977. Incorporation depth and rainfall on weed control in soybeans with metribuzin. Agron. J. 69:107110.


Effect of Planting Depth on Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Seedling Development and Response to Cyanazine

  • Thomas C. Mester (a1) and Douglas D. Buhler (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed