Skip to main content Accessibility help

Cross-Resistance of Eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) in China to ALS Inhibitors Due to a Pro-197-Ser Point Mutation

  • Dan Li (a1), Xiangju Li (a1), Huilin Yu (a1), Jingjing Wang (a1) and Hailan Cui (a1)...


Eclipta, widespread in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, is one of the main malignant broadleaf weeds and thrives in moist and dryland fields. Field rates of acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors have failed to control eclipta in some farmlands in China. One ALS inhibitor–resistant population (R) collected from Jiangsu province in China was confirmed in the greenhouse in our preliminary work. Whole-plant assays revealed that this R population was highly resistant to four sulfonylureas (pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, 134-fold; bensulfuron-methyl, 172-fold; metsulfuron-methyl, 30-fold; and tribenuron-methyl, 195-fold), two triazolopyrimidines (pyroxsulam, 98-fold; penoxsulam, 30-fold), and one pyrimidinylthio-benzoate (bispyribac-sodium, 166-fold) and was moderately resistant to two imidazolinones (imazethapyr, 10-fold; imazapic, 19-fold). ALS enzyme-activity assays showed insensitivity of the ALS from the R population (resistance index values ranged from 12 to 293) to all of the above ALS inhibitors in vitro. Chromatograms from ALS gene sequence analysis detected a homozygous Pro-197-Ser amino acid substitution in the R population. These results confirmed that the Pro-197-Ser substitution results in broad-spectrum cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors in the eclipta R population. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report broad cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors in eclipta and to obtain the full-length ALS gene sequence.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author’s E-mail:


Hide All

Associate Editor for this paper: Vijay Nandula, USDA–ARS.



Hide All
Altom, JV, Westerman, RB, Murray, DS (1995) Eclipta (Eclipta prostrata L.) control in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.). Peanut Sci 22:114120
Bradford, MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248254
Brosnan, JT, Vargas, JJ, Breeden, GK, Grier, L, Aponte, RA, Tresch, S, Laforest, M (2016) A new amino acid substitution (Ala-205-Phe) in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad spectrum resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Planta 243:149159
Chen, JY, Huang, ZF, Zhang, CX, Huang, HJ, Wei, SH, Chen, JC, Wang, X (2015) Molecular basis of resistance to imazethapyr in redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) populations from China. Pestic Biochem Physiol 124:4347
Duggleby, RG, McCourt, JA, Guddat, LW (2008) Structure and mechanism of inhibition of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase. Plant Physiol Biochem 46:309324
Duggleby, RG, Pang, SS (2000) Acetohydroxyacid synthase. J Biochem Mol Biol 33:136
Galinato, MI, Moody, K, Piggin, CM (1999) Upland Rice Weeds of South and Southeast Asia. Makati City, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. Pp. 4143
Haider, MS, Tahir, M, Latif, S, Briddon, RW (2006) First report of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus infecting Eclipta prostrata in Pakistan. Plant Pathol 55:285
He, ZF, Mao, MJ, Yu, H, Wang, XM, Li, HP (2008) First report of a strain of Alternanthera yellow vein virus infecting Eclipta prostrate (L.) L. (Compositae) in China. J Phytopathol 156:496498
Heap, I (2016) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Accessed: December 12, 2016
Holm, LG, Plucknett, DL, Pancho, JV, Herberger, JP, eds (1977) The World’s Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. Honolulu, Hawaii: University Press of Hawaii. 610 p
Huang, ZF, Chen, JY, Zhang, CX, Huang, HJ, Wei, SH, Zhou, XX, Wang, X (2015) Target-site basis for resistance to imazethapyr in redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.). Pestic Biochem Physiol 128:1015
Intanon, S, Perez-Jones, A, Hulting, AG, Mallory-Smith, CA (2011) Multiple Pro197 ALS substitutions endow resistance to ALS inhibitors within and among mayweed chamomile populations. Weed Sci 59:431437
Iwakami, S, Uchino, A, Kataoka, Y, Shibaike, H, Watanabe, H, Inamura, T (2014) Cytochrome P450 genes induced by bispyribac-sodium treatment in a multiple-herbicide-resistant biotype of Echinochloa phyllopogon . Pest Manag Sci 70:549558
Kaloumenos, NS, Adamouli, VN, Dordas, CA, Eleftherohorinos, IG (2011) Corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas) cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Pest Manag Sci 67:574585
Laplante, J, Rajcan, I, Tardif, FJ (2009) Multiple allelic forms of acetohydroxyacid synthase are responsible for herbicide resistance in Setaria viridis . Theor Appl Genet 119:577585
Li, SS, Zhang, LJ, Qiang, S (2009) Weed community characteristics and comprehensive evaluation on weed in paddy fields under labour-saving cultivations in middle Jiangsu province, China. Chinese Journal of Rice Science 23:207214. Chinese
Liu, WT, Bi, YL, Li, LX, Yuan, GH, Du, L, Wang, JX (2013) Target-site basis for resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitor in Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum L.). Pestic Biochem Physiol 107:5054
Liu, WT, Yuan, GH, Du, L, Guo, WL, Li, LX, Bi, YL, Wang, JX (2015a) A novel Pro197Glu substitution in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors. Pestic Biochem Physiol 117:3138
Liu, Y, Liu, HZ, Gao, ZG (2015b) Molecular resistance mechanism of Sagittaria trifolia L. to pyrazosulfuron-methyl. Weed Science 33:2023. Chinese
Mallory-Smith, CA, Thill, DC, Dial, MJ (1990) Identification of sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola). Weed Technol 40:163168
Massa, D, Krenz, B, Gerhards, R (2011) Target-site resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Apera spica-venti populations is conferred by documented and previously unknown mutations. Weed Res 51:294303
Matzrafi, M, Lazar, TW, Sibony, M, Rubin, B (2015) Conyza species: distribution and evolution of multiple target-site herbicide resistances. Planta 242:259267
Mazur, BJ, Falco, SC (1989) The development of herbicide resistant crops. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Mol Biol 40:441470
McCourt, JA, Pang, SS, King-Scott, J, Guddat, LW, Duggleby, RG (2006) Herbicide-binding sites revealed in the structure of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:569573
Melouk, HA, Damicone, JP, Jackson, KE (1992) Eclipta prostrata, a new weed host for Sclerotinia minor . Plant Dis 76:101
Park, KW, Fandrich, L, Mallory-Smith, CA (2004) Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of propoxycarbazone-sodium in ALS-inhibitor resistant Bromus tectorum biotypes. Pestic Biochem Physiol 79:1824
Park, KW, Mallory-Smith, CA (2004) Physiological and molecular basis for ALS inhibitor resistance in Bromus tectorum biotypes. Weed Res 44:7177
Powles, SB, Yu, Q (2010) Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Mol Biol 61:317347
Qiang, S, Wei, SH, Hu, JL (2000) Study on weed infestation in main cotton regions of Jiangsu province. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University 23:1822. Chinese
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Srivastava, V, Nandula, V, Bond, JA, Scott, RC (2013) Physiological and molecular basis of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). J Agric Food Chem 61:278289
Sada, Y, Ikeda, H, Kizawa, S (2013) Resistance levels of sulfonylurea-resistant Schoenoplectus juncoides (Roxb.) Palla with various Pro197 mutations in acetolactate synthase to imazosulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl and imazaquin-ammonium. Weed Biol Manag 13:5361
Seefeldt, SS, Jensen, JE, Fuerst, EP (1995) Log-logistic analysis of herbicide dose-response relationships. Weed Technol 9:218227
Sharma, NK, Amritphale, D (1988) Effect of moisture stress and basalin on germination and root length of three weeds of soybean. Indian J Plant Physiol 31:440443
Sibony, M, Rubin, B (2003) Molecular basis for multiple resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides and atrazine in Amaranthus blitoides (prostrate pigweed). Planta 216:10221027
Singh, BK (1999) Biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine. Pages 227247 in Singh BK, ed. Plant Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Biotechnology. Marcel Dekker, New York
Smith, RJ Jr (1988) Weed thresholds in southern US rice, Oryza sativa . Weed Technol 2:232241
Tehranchian, P, Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Nandula, V, McElroy, S, Chen, S, Scott, RC (2015) ALS-resistant smallflower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis) in Arkansas rice: physiological and molecular basis of resistance. Weed Sci 63:561568
Tranel, PJ, Wright, TR (2002) Resistance of weeds to ALS-inhibiting herbicides: what have we learned? Weed Sci 50:700712
Varanasi, VK, Godar, A, Peterson, DE, Shoup, D, Jugulam, M (2015) A target-site point mutation in henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.) confers high level resistance to ALS-inhibitors. Weed Sci 64:231239
Veldhuis, LJ, Hall, LM, O’Donovan, JT, Dyer, W, Hall, JC (2000) Metabolism-based resistance of a wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) biotype to ethametsulfuron-methyl. J Agric Food Chem 48:29862990
Wang, GX, Lin, Y, Li, W, Ito, M, Itoh, K (2004) A mutation confers Monochoria vaginalis resistance to sulfonylureas that target acetolactate synthase. Pestic Biochem Physiol 80:4346
Wang, XG, Xu, QF, Zhu, JW, Liu, R, Wang, SR (2013) Resistance comparison of Ammannia arenaria to bensulfuron-methyl in different paddy rice growing regions of Zhejiang Province. Chinese Journal of Pesticide Science 15:5258. Chinese
Warwick, SI, Sauder, C, Beckie, HJ (2005) Resistance in Canadian biotypes of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) to acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 53:631639
Wilcut, JW, Walls, FR Jr, Horton, DN (1991) Imazethapyr for broadleaf weed control in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea). Peanut Sci 18:2630
Wu, MG, Cao, FQ, Liu, L (2007) Effect of sulfonylurea herbicides on the acetolactate synthases activity between resistant and susceptive biotypes of Monochoria korsakowii . Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 34:545548. Chinese
Yu, Q, Friesen, LS, Zhang, XQ, Powles, SB (2004) Tolerance to acetolactate synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibiting herbicides in Vulpia bromoides is conferred by two co-existing resistance mechanisms. Pestic Biochem Physiol 78:2130
Yu, Q, Han, H, Li, M, Purba, E, Walsh, MJ, Powles, SB (2012) Resistance evaluation for herbicide resistance-endowing acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene mutations using Raphanus raphanistrum populations homozygous for specific ALS mutations. Weed Res 52:178186
Yu, Q, Powles, SB (2014) Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding. Pest Manag Sci 70:13401350
Yu, XY, Ge, LL, Liu, LP, Li, YF (2010) Resistance of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) to multiple herbicides in direct-seeded rice. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Science 26:14381440. Chinese


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Cross-Resistance of Eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) in China to ALS Inhibitors Due to a Pro-197-Ser Point Mutation

  • Dan Li (a1), Xiangju Li (a1), Huilin Yu (a1), Jingjing Wang (a1) and Hailan Cui (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.