Skip to main content Accessibility help

Crop Manipulation in Integrated Weed Management Systems

  • Robert H. Walker (a1) and Gale A. Buchanan (a2)


Integrated weed management (IWM) became an accepted, and frequently used, term by weed scientists in the early 1970's. It has been argued by some that IWM is simply new terminology for a system that was previously called “weed control”. In any event, the acceptance of the “management concept” has assured the grower that chemicals for weed control are merely a component part of a total system for managing weeds in crops (9, 65).



Hide All
1. Aldrich, S. R., Scott, W. O., and Leng, E. R. 1975. Pages 223237 in Modern Corn Production. A and L Publ., Champaign, IL.
2. Anderson, W. P. 1977. Pages 30108 in Weed Science: Principles. West Publ. Co., New York.
3. ARS National Research Program. 1976. Weed control. Pages 8083 in NRP No. 20280. U.S. Dep. Agric., Agric. Res. Serv., Washington, DC.
4. Bonner, James. 1950. The role of toxic substances in the interactions of higher plants. Bot. Rev. 16:5165.
5. Borner, H. 1960. Liberation of organic substances from higher plants and their role in the soil sickness problem. Bot. Rev. 26:393424.
6. Buchanan, G. A. 1976. Management of the weed pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Pages 168184 in Proc. U.S.–U.S.S.R. Symposium: The integrated control of the arthropod, disease and weed pests of cotton, grain sorghum and deciduous fruit, Lubbock, TX.
7. Buchanan, G. A. 1976. Weeds and weed management in cotton. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf., pp. 166168.
8. Buchanan, G. A. 1977. Allelopathy and weed science. Pages 100112 in Agric. Res. Serv., ed. The Role of Secondary Compounds in Plant Interactions (Allelopathy).
9. Buchanan, G. A. 1979. Role of weed management in cotton production. Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf., pp. 246248.
10. Buchanan, G. A. and Hauser, E. W. 1980. Influence of row spacing on competitiveness and yield of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea . Weed Sci. 28:401409.
11. Buchanan, G. A., Hoveland, C. S., Brown, V. L., and Wade, R. H. 1975. Weed population shifts influenced by crop rotations and weed control programs. Proc. South Weed Sci. Soc. 28:6071.
12. Buchanan, G. A., Hoveland, C. S., and Harris, M. C. 1975. Response of weeds to soil pH. Weed Sci. 23:473477.
13. Buchanan, G. A. and McLaughlin, R. D. 1974. Influence of nitrogen on weed competition in cotton. Weed Sci. 23:324328.
14. Burnside, O. C. 1972. Tolerance of soybean cultivars to weed competition and herbicides. Weed Sci. 20:294297.
15. Burnside, O. C. 1979. Soybean (Glycine max) growth was affected by weed removal. Weed Sci. 27:562565.
16. Chapman, S. R. and Carter, L. P. 1976. Pages 95210 in Crop Production Principles and Practices. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.
17. Cope, J. T. Jr. 1981. Effects of 50 years of fertilization with phosphorus and potassium on soil-test levels and yields at six locations. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45:342347.
18. Cope, J. T. Jr. and Thurlow, D. L. 1980. Corn-wheat-soybean rotations and their response to nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. Ala. Agric. Exp. Stn., Highlights of Agric. Res. 27(3):16.
19. Corbin, F. T. and Upchurch, R. P. 1967. Influence of pH on detoxification of herbicides in soil. Weeds 15:370377.
20. Creel, F. M. Jr., Hoveland, C. S., and Buchanan, G. A. 1968. Germination, growth, and ecology of sicklepod. Weed Sci. 16:396400.
21. Dale, J. E. and Chandler, J. M. 1979. Herbicide-crop rotation for johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) control. Weed Sci. 27:479485.
22. Denmead, O. T., Fritschen, L. J., and Shaw, R. H. 1962. Spatial distribution of net radiation in a corn field. Agron. J. 54:505510.
23. Dowler, C. C. and Hauser, E. W. 1974. The effect of cultivation on weeds controlled by fluometuron in cotton. Proc. South Weed Sci. Soc. 27:112115.
24. Dowler, C. C., Hauser, E. W., and Johnson, A. W. 1974. Cropherbicide sequences on a southeastern coastal plain soil. Weed Sci. 22:500505.
25. Emmond, G. S. and Ledingham, R. J. 1972. Effects of crop rotation on some soil-borne pathogens of potato. Can. J. Plant Sci. 52:605611.
26. Fay, P. K. and Duke, W. B. 1977. An assessment of allelopathic potential in Avena germ plasm. Weed Sci. 25:224228.
27. Frans, R. E. 1969. Changing ecology of weeds in cotton fields. Proc. Cotton Prod. and Mech. Conf. 29:2430.
28. Freeman, K. C. 1968. Influence of row spacing on yield and quality of sugarcane in Georgia. Agron. J. 60:424425.
29. Gilbert, B. E. and Pember, F. R. 1935. Tolerance of certain weeds and grasses to toxic aluminum. Soil Sci. 39:425429.
30. Godel, G. L. 1935. Relations between rate of seeding and yield of cereal crops in competition with weeds. Sci. Agr. 16:165168.
31. Grant, E. A. and Sallans, W. G. 1964. Influence of plant extracts on germination and growth of eight forage species. J. Br. Grassl. Soc. 19:191197.
32. Guenzi, W. D., McCalla, T. M., and Norstadt, F. A. 1967. Presence and persistance of phytotoxic substances in wheat, oat, corn, and sorghum residues. Agron. J. 59:163165.
33. Guneyli, E., Burnside, O. C., and Nordquist, P. T. 1969. Influence of seedling characteristics on weed competitive ability of sorghum hybrids and inbred lines. Crop Sci. 9:713716.
34. Hartwig, E. E. 1957. Row width and rates of planting in the southern states. Soybean Dig. 17:1314, 16.
35. Hauser, E. W., Dowler, C. C., Jellum, M. C., and Cecil, S. R. 1974. Effects of herbicide-crop rotation on nutsedge, annual grasses and crops. Weed Sci. 22:172176.
36. Hiltbold, A. E. and Buchanan, G. A. 1977. Influence of soil pH on persistence of atrazine in the field. Weed Sci. 25:515520.
37. Hoveland, C. S. 1964. Germination and seedling vigor of clovers as affected by grass root extract. Crop Sci. 4:211213.
38. Hoveland, C. S., Buchanan, G. A., and Harris, M. C. 1975. Response of weeds to soil phosphorus and potassium. Weed Sci. 24:194201.
39. Jensen, L. A. 1962. Are we planting weeds? Proc. West. Weed Control Conf. 18:52.
40. Kelley, A. D. and Burns, V. F. 1975. Dissemination of weed seeds by irrigation water. Weed Sci. 23:486493.
41. Ladlie, J. S., Meggitt, W. F., and Penner, D. 1976. Effect of pH on metribuzin activity in the soil. Weed Sci. 24:505507.
42. Lehman, W. F. and Lambert, J. W. 1960. Effects of spacing of soybean plants between and within rows on yield and its components. Agron. J. 52:8486.
43. Leighty, C. E. 1938. Crop rotation. Pages 406430 in U.S. Dep. Agric. Yearbook of Agric. Soils and Men.
44. Lockerman, R. H. and Putnam, A. R. 1975. Suppression of weeds with allelopathic accessions of cucumbers. Proc. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 30:31.
45. Lockerman, R. H. and Putnam, A. R. 1977. Suppression of weeds with allelopathic accessions of cucumbers. Abstr., Weed Sci. Soc. Am. No. 86.
46. Lockerman, R. H. and Putnam, A. R. 1979. Evaluation of allelopathic cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) as an aid to weed control. Weed Sci. 27:5457.
47. Loomis, R. S., Duncan, W. G., Dovrat, A., and Nunez, F. A. 1968. Canopy architecture at various population densities and the growth and grain yield of corn. Crop Sci. 8:303308.
48. Loomis, R. S., Duncan, W. G., Dovrat, A., and Nunez, F. A. 1968. Quantitative descriptions of foliage display and light absorption in field communities of corn plants. Crop Sci. 8:352356.
49. Maloy, O. C. and Burkholder, W. H. 1959. Some effects of crop rotation on the fusarium root rot of bean. Phytopathology 49:583587.
50. Martin, J. H. and Leonard, W. H. Pages 7073 in Principles of Field Crop Production. Macmillan Publ. Co., New York.
51. McBeath, D. K., Dew, D. A., and Friesen, H. A. 1970. Competition between barley and wild oats as affected by nitrogen, barban, and time of seeding. Can. J. Plant Sci. 50:541550.
52. McWhorter, C. G. and Hartwig, E. E. 1972. Competition of johnsongrass and cocklebur with six soybean varieties. Weed Sci. 20:5659.
53. Metcalfe, D. S. and Elkins, D. M. 1980. Pages 205330 in Crop Production Principles and Practices. Macmillan Publ. Co., Inc., New York.
54. Muller, C. H. 1969. Allelopathy as a factor in ecological processes. Vegetatio, Haag 18(1–6):348357.
55. Muller, C. H., Muller, W. H., and Haines, B. L. 1964. Volatile growth inhibitors produced by aromatic shrubs. Science 143:471473.
56. National Academy of Sciences. 1975. Pest control: An assessment of present and alternative technologies. Pages 45129 in Corn/Soybeans Pest Control. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
57. Nieto, J. H. and Staniforth, D. W. 1961. Corn-foxtail competition under various production conditions. Agron. J. 53.15.
58. Parker, E. C. 1915. Pages 7197 in Field Management and Crop Rotation. Webb Publ. Co., St. Paul, MN.
59. Patrick, Z. A. 1971. Phytotoxic substances associated with the decomposition in soil of plant residues. Soil Sci. 111:1318.
60. Putnam, A. R. and Duke, W. B. 1974. Biological suppression of weeds: evidence for allelopathy in accessions of cucumber. Science 185:370372.
61. Rice, E. L. 1974. Allelopathy. Academic Press, New York. 353 pp.
62. Ricky, F. D. 1933. Corn culture. USDA Farmer Bul. 1714:1820.
63. Roberts, H. A. 1962. Effect of six years of cropping on the weed seeds in the soil. J. Ecol. 50:803813.
64. Robinson, A. R. and Humphreys, A. S. 1967. Water control and measurement on the farm. Page 838 in Hagan, R. M., Haise, H. R., and Edminster, T. W., eds. Irrigation of Agricultural Lands. Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WI.
65. Rodgers, E. G. 1978. Weeds and their control. Pages 164186 in Roberts, D. A., ed. Fundamentals of Plant-Pest Control. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.
66. Rogers, N. K., Buchanan, G. A., and Johnson, W. C. 1976. Influence of row spacing on weed competition with cotton. Weed Sci. 24:410413.
67. Sexsmithe, J. J. and Russell, G. C. 1963. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on wild oats and spring wheat. Can. J. Plant Sci. 43:6469.
68. Shaw, W. C. 1964. Weed science – revolution in agricultural technology. Weed Sci. 12:153162.
69. Shaw, W. C., Wax, L. M., McWhorter, C. G., Dowler, C. C., and Andersen, R. N. 1979. Progress in the development of weed control technology for soybean production. Annual meeting of the Natl. Soybean Crop Improvement Council's Advisory Board Meeting and the 50th Anniv. Meeting of the Natl. Soybean Processors Assoc., Hilton Head, SC.
70. Slife, F. W. and Wax, L. M. 1976. Weed and herbicide management. Pages 397403 in Hill, L. D., ed. World Soybean Research. Interstate Printers & Publ., Inc., Danville, IL.
71. Smith, R. J. Jr. 1979. How to control the hard-to-kill weeds in rice. Weeds Today. 10(1):1214.
72. Smith, R. J. Jr. and Shaw, W. C. 1966. Weeds and their control in rice production. U.S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 292. 64 pp.
73. Staniforth, D. W. 1961. Response of corn hybrids to yellow foxtail competition. Weeds. 9:132136.
74. Staniforth, D. W. 1962. Response of soybean varieties to weed competition. Agron. J. 54:1113.
75. Teem, D. H., Hoveland, C. S., and Buchanan, G. A. 1974. Primary root elongation of three weed species. Weed Sci. 22:4750.
76. Thatcher, R. W. 1923. The effect of one crop on another. Agron. J. 15:331338.
77. Thorne, D. W., and Peterson, H. W. 1954. Pages 217236 in Irrigated Soils, Their Fertility and Management. The Blakiston Co., Inc., Toronto.
78. Timmons, F. L. 1970. A history of weed control in the United States and Canada. Weed Sci. 18:294307.
79. Tukey, H. B. Jr. 1966. Leaching of metabolites from above-ground plant parts and its implications. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 93:385410.
80. Vengris, Jonas, Colby, W. G., and Drake, M. 1955. Plant nutrient competition between weeds and corn. Agron. J. 47:213216.
81. Walker, R. H., Whitwell, T., Harris, J. R., Thurlow, D. L., and McGuire, J. A. 1981. Sicklepod control in soybeans with herbicides, row spacings, and planting dates. Alabama Agric. Exp. Stn., Highlights of Agric. Res. 28(1):18.
82. Wax, L. M. and Pendleton, J. W. 1968. Effect of row spacing on weed control in soybeans. Weeds 16:462464.
83. Weber, J. B., Best, J. A., and Witt, W. W. 1974. Herbicide residues and weed species shifts on modified-soil field plots. Weed Sci. 22:427433.
84. Wiese, A. F., Collier, J. F., Clark, L. E., and Havelka, U. D. 1964. Effects of weeds and cultural practices on sorghum yields. Weeds 12:209211.
85. Wiggans, R. G. 1939. The influence of space and arrangement on the production of soybean plants. Agron. J. 31:314321.
86. Wilcox, J. R. 1974. Response of three soybean strains to equidistant spacing. Agron. J. 66:409412.
87. Wilson, R. G. Jr. 1980. Dissemination of weed seeds by surface irrigation water in western Nebraska. Weed Sci. 28:8792.
88. Yao, Augustine Y. M. and Shaw, R. H. 1964. Effect of plant population and planting pattern of corn on the distribution of net radiation. Agron. J. 56:165169.

Crop Manipulation in Integrated Weed Management Systems

  • Robert H. Walker (a1) and Gale A. Buchanan (a2)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed