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Characterization of SAN 9789-Stimulated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Seed Germination

  • Karl-Olof Widell (a1), Christer Sundqvist (a1) and Hemming I. Virgin (a1)


Dark germination of light-requiring lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. ‘Grand Rapids’) was stimulated by SAN 9789 [4-chloro-5-(methylamino-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazinone] and to a minor degree by BASF 13761 [4-chloro-5-methoxy-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone] and BASF 44521 [4-chloro-5-methoxy-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazinone], but not by’ pyrazon [5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone], SAN 9785 [4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-phenyl-3 (2H)-pyridazinone], SAN 9774 [5-amino-4-chloro-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazinone], or SAN 6706 [4-chloro-5-(dimethylamino)-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazinone]. SAN 9789 stimulation was inhibited by cis-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboximide (CHDC), and abscisic acid (ABA) at 1 × 10-4 M. Red light nullified the inhibitory effect of CHDC (1 × 10-4 M) but not the inhibitory effect of ABA (1 × 10-4 M) on SAN 9789 stimulated germination. Gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine) increased the germination stimulatory effect of SAN 9789 in darkness. Temperatures above 25 C decreased the effect of SAN 9789, with a temperature of 35 C completely inhibiting germination. The inhibitory effect of CHDC was strongly decreased at temperatures below 20 C. SAN 9789-induced germination in darkness was always the same (25 to 26% units increase in germination) even though the red light-stimulated germination differed with the seed batch.



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Characterization of SAN 9789-Stimulated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) Seed Germination

  • Karl-Olof Widell (a1), Christer Sundqvist (a1) and Hemming I. Virgin (a1)


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