Skip to main content Accessibility help

Biodegradation of Carbamothioates in Butylate-History Soils

  • Vicki W. McCusker (a1), Horace D. Skipper (a1), Joseph P. Zublena (a1) and Dewitt T. Gooden (a1)


Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the biodegradation of 14C-labeled butylate, cycloate, EPTC, pebulate, and vernolate in three butylate-history soils that had received three to eight applications of butylate under field conditions. After 20 days, biodegradation of butylate and EPTC was accelerated and had no lag phase in all three butylate-history soils. Butylate-adapted microorganisms were cross-adapted for EPTC and degraded EPTC as readily as butylate. Biodegradation of butylate and EPTC in Dothan soil without a butylate history exhibited a lag phase of 6 days after which 14CO2 was evolved at an exponential rate. This indicated that enhanced biodegradation was induced after one application of butylate or EPTC. Butylate-adapted microorganisms were cross-adapted for vernolate and pebulate in Dothan and pebulate in Wagram soils with a butylate history. Biodegradation of vernolate and pebulate was not enhanced in Varina butylate-history soil. After 20 days, there was no cross-adaptation for cycloate in any soil. These findings indicated that biodegradation of carbamothioates was influenced by soil type and previous carbamothioate use and that caution should be exercised in use of EPTC on fields of previous butylate use.



Hide All
1. Audus, L. J. 1964. The effects of soil microorganisms on herbicides. Pages 165184 in Audus, L. J., ed. The Physiology and Biochemistry of Herbicides. Academic Press, New York.
2. Bartha, R. and Pramer, D. 1965. Features of a flask and method for measuring the persistence and biological effects of pesticides in soil. Soil Sci. 100:6870.
3. Dowler, C. C., Marti, L. R., Kvien, C. S., Skipper, H. D., Gooden, D. T., and Zublena, J. P. 1987. Accelerated degradation potential of selected herbicides in the Southeastern United States. Weed Tech. 1:350358.
4. Fang, S. C. 1975. Thiocarbamates. Pages 323349 in Kearney, P. C. and Kaufman, D. D., eds. Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation and Mode of Action. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Marcel-Dekker, New York.
5. Fang, S. C., Theisen, T., and Freed, V. H. 1981. Effects of water evaporation, temperature, and rates of application on the retention of ethyl-N,N-di-n-propylthiolcarbamate in various soils. Weeds 9:569574.
6. Gooden, D. T., Murdock, E. C., Skipper, H. D., and Zublena, J. P. 1984. Weed control in soybeans and peanuts with vernolate + R-33865. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 37:327.
7. Gray, R. A. and Weierich, A. J. 1965. Factors affecting the vapor loss of EPTC from soils. Weeds 13:141147.
8. Gray, R. A. and Joo, G. K. 1985. Reduction in weed control after repeat applications of thiocarbamate and other herbicide. Weed Sci. 33:698702.
9. Guth, J. A. 1981. Experimental approaches to studying the fate of pesticides in soil. Pages 85114 in Hutson, D. H. and Roberts, T. R., eds. Progress in Pesticide Biochemistry. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
10. Harvey, R. G., McNevin, G. R., Albright, J. W., and Kozak, M. E. 1986. Wild proso millet control with thiocarbamate herbicides on previously treated soils. Weed Sci. 34:773780.
11. Kearney, P. C. and Kontson, A. 1976. A simple system to simultaneously measure volatilization and metabolism of pesticides from soils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:424426.
12. Kirkland, K. and Fryer, J. D. 1972. Degradation of several herbicides in a soil previously treated with MCPA. Weed Res. 12:9095.
13. Lee, A. 1984. EPTC (S-ethyl N,N-dipropylthiocarbamate) degrading microorganisms isolated from a soil previously exposed to EPTC. Soil Biol. Biochem. 16:529531.
14. Menkveld, B. and Dekker, J. H. 1983. Accelerated breakdown of butylate in soils with a history of its use. Proc. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 38:46.
15. Obrigawitch, T., Martin, A. R., and Roeth, F. W. 1983. Degradation of thiocarbamate herbicides in soils exhibiting rapid EPTC breakdown. Weed Sci. 21:187192.
16. Obrigawitch, T., Roeth, F. W., Martin, A. R., and Wilson, R. G. Jr. 1982. Addition of R-33865 to EPTC for extended herbicide activity. Weed Sci. 30:417422.
17. Obrigawitch, T., Wilson, R. G., Martin, A. R., and Roeth, F. W. 1982. The influence of temperature, moisture, and prior EPTC application on the degradation of EPTC in soils. Weed Sci. 30:175181.
18. Rahman, A., Atkinson, B. C., Douglas, J. A., and Sinclair, D. P. 1979. Eradicane causes problems. N.Z. J. Agric. 139:4749.
19. Rahman, A. and James, T. K. 1983. Decreased activity of EPTC + R-25788 following repeated use in some New Zealand soils. Weed Sci. 31:783789.
20. Reynolds, D. A. and Dexter, A. G. 1984. Thiocarbamate conditioning in North Dakota. Proc. North Cent. Weed Control Conf. 39:8384.
21. Rudyanski, W. J., Fawcett, R. S., and McAllister, R. S. 1987. Effect of prior pesticide use on thiocarbamate herbicide persistence and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) control Weed Sci. 35:6874.
22. Skipper, H. D., Murdock, E. C., Gooden, D. T., Zublena, J. P., and Amakiri, M. A. 1986. Enhanced herbicide biodegradation in South Carolina soils previously treated with butylate. Weed Sci. 34:558563.
23. Tuxhorn, G. L., Roeth, F. W., Martin, A. R., and Wilson, R. G. 1986. Butylate persistence and activity in soils previously treated with thiocarbamates. Weed Sci. 34:961965.
24. Varn, J. E. Jr., Gooden, D. T., Skipper, H. D., and Zublena, J. P. 1986. Evaluation of vernolate with herbicide extenders in peanuts. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 39:48.
25. Weed Science Society of America. 1983. Herbicide Handbook. 5th ed. Weed Sci. Soc. Am., Champaign, IL. 515 pp.
26. Wilson, R. G. 1984. Accelerated degradation of thiocarbamate herbicides in soil with prior thiocarbamate herbicide exposure. Weed Sci. 32:264268.
27. Zublena, J. P., Skipper, H. D., Gooden, D. T., and Camors, F. B. 1986. Microbial inhibitors in a butylate soil challenge. Weed Sci. Soc. Am. Abstr. 26:95.


Biodegradation of Carbamothioates in Butylate-History Soils

  • Vicki W. McCusker (a1), Horace D. Skipper (a1), Joseph P. Zublena (a1) and Dewitt T. Gooden (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed