The response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.) to barban (4-chloro-2-butynyl-m-chlorocarbanilate) was studied as influenced by plant morphology and air temperature after application. Growth of wheat and wild oat seedlings was reduced by barban at 0.3 μg and 0.6 μg applied to the first node, respectively. Barban application to the base and midpoint of the first leaf blade required a lower dose to reduce wild oat growth than wheat growth. Increased tillering occurred from barban injury to the main culm in wheat. Wheat and wild oat susceptibility to barban increased as the post-treatment temperature decreased from 32 to 10 C. Barban selectivity for wild oats in wheat was greater at 27 and 21 C than at 16 and 10 C.