Skip to main content Accessibility help

ALS-Resistant Spotted Spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) Confirmed in Georgia

  • Patrick E. McCullough (a1), J. Scott McElroy (a2), Jialin Yu (a1), Hui Zhang (a2), Tyler B. Miller (a2), Shu Chen (a2), Christopher R. Johnston (a1) and Mark A. Czarnota (a3)...


Metsulfuron is used for POST control of spotted spurge in many warm-season turfgrasses. A suspected resistant (R) biotype of spotted spurge was collected from turfgrass in Georgia with a history of exclusive metsulfuron use. Research was conducted to evaluate the resistance level of this biotype to metsulfuron, efficacy of other mechanisms of action for control, and the molecular basis for resistance. Compared with a susceptible (S) biotype, the R biotype required >90 and >135 times greater metsulfuron rates to reach 50% injury and reduce biomass 50% from the nontreated, respectively. The R biotype was also resistant to trifloxysulfuron but was injured equivalent to the S biotype from dicamba, glyphosate, and triclopyr. Gene sequencing of the R biotype revealed a Trp574 to Leu substitution that has conferred resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in previous research. This is the first report of ALS resistance in spotted spurge. More importantly, this is the first report of a herbicide-resistant broadleaf weed from a turfgrass system in the United States.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Anonymous (2015) Manor herbicide label. Burr Ridge, IL Nufarm Americas. 5 p
Asgarpour, R, Ghorbani, R, Khajeh-Hosseini, M, Mohammadvand, E, Chauhan, BS (2015) Germination of spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) seeds in response to different environmental factors. Weed Sci 63:502510
Bararpour, MT, Talbert, RE, Frans, RE (1994) Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata) interference with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum ). Weed Sci 42:553555
Barrentine, WL (1989) Minimum effective rate of chlorimuon and imazaqun applied to common cocklebur (Xanthium sumarium ). Weed Technol 3:126130
Brautigam, A, Gowik, U (2010) What can next generation sequencing do for you? Next generation sequencing as a valuable tool in plant research. Plant Biol 12:831841
Christoffers, MJ, Nandula, VK, Howatt, KA, Wehking, TR (2006) Target-site resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitors in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis ). Weed Sci 54:191197
Cross, GB, Skroch, WA (1992) Quantification of weed seed contamination and weed development in container nurseries. J Environ Hortic 10:159161
Cross, RB, McCarty, LB, Tharayil, N, Whitwell, T, Bridge, WC (2013) Detecting annual bluegrass (Poa annua) resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides using a rapid diagnostic assay. Weed Sci 61:384389
Cudney, DW, Elmore, CL, Gibeault, VA, Reints, JS (1997) Common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) management in cool-season turfgrass. Weed Technol 11:478483
DeFelice, MS, Brown, WB, Aldrich, RJ, Sims, BD, Judy, DT, Guetble, DR (1989) Weed control in soybeans (Glycine max) with reduced rates of postemergence herbicides. Weed Sci 37:365374
Derr, J (1994) Weed control in container-grown herbaceous perennials. HortScience 29:9597
Derr, J (2002) Tolerance of ornamental grasses to preemergence herbicides. J Environ Hortic 20:161165
Derr, JF (2012) Broadleaf weed control with sulfonylurea herbicides in cool-season turfgrass. Weed Technol 26:582586
Dunn, PH (1979) The distribution of leaf spurge (Euphorbia esula) and other weed Euphorbia spp. in the United States. Weed Sci 27:509515
Elmore, CD, McDaniel, S (1986) Identification and distribution of the weedy spruges in the Delta of Mississippi. Weed Sci 34:911915
Grabherr, MG, Haas, BJ, Yassour, M, Levin, JZ (2011) Full-length transcriptome assembly from RNA-seq data without a reference genome. Nat Biotechnol 29:644652
Haas, BJ, Papanicolaou, A, Yassour, M, Grabnerr, M (2013) De novo transcript sequence reconstruction from RNA-seq using the Trinity platform for reference generation and analysis. Nat Protoc 8:14941512
Heap, I (2015) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. Accessed August 8, 2015
Hope, JH (1982) Biology, Control and Spotted Spurge (Euphorbia maculata L.) in Soybean. Ph.D Dissertation. Knoxville, TN University of Tennessee. 67 p
Judge, CA, Neal, JC, Weber, JB (2004) Dose and concentration responses of common nursery weeds to Gallery, Surflan, and Treflan. J Environ Hortic 22:106112
Klingman, TE, King, CA, Oliver, LR (1992) Effect of application rate, weed species, and weed stage of growth on imazethapyr activity. Weed Sci 40:227232
Krochmal, A (1952) Seeds of weedy Euphorbia species and their identification. Weeds 1: 243255
McCarty, LB (1991) Metsulfuron for prostrate spurge control in bermudagrass. Proc South Weed Sci Soc 44:180.
McCourt, JA, Pang, SS, King-Scott, J, Guddat, LW, and Duggleby, RG (2006) Herbicide-binding sites revealed in the structure of plant acetohydroxyacid synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:569573
McCullough, PE, Yu, J, McElroy, JS, Chen, S, Zhang, H, Grey, TL, Czarnota, MA (2015) ALS-resistant annual sedge (Cyperus compressus) confirmed in turfgrass. Weed Sci 64:3341.
McElroy, JS, Breeden, GK (2006) Triclopyr safens the use of fluazifop and fenoxaprop on zoysiagrass while maintaining bermudagrass suppression. Appl Turfgrass Sci. DOI: 10.1094/ATS-2006-0502-01-RS
McElroy, JS, Flessner, ML, Wang, Z, Dane, F, Walker, RH, Wehtje, GR (2013) A Trp574 to Leu amino acid substitution in the ALS gene of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is associated with resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 61:2125
Norcini, JG, Aldrich, JH (1992) Spotted spurge control and phytotoxicity to daylily from preemergence herbicides. J Environ Hortic 10:1417
Osuna, MD, Vidotto, F, Fischer, AJ, Bayer, DE, De Prado, R, Ferrero, A (2002) Cross resistance to bispyribac-sodium and bensulfuron-methyl in Echinochloa phyllopogon and Cyperus difformis . Pestic Biochem Physiol 73:917
Powles, SB, Yu, Q (2010) Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annu Rev Plant Biol 61:317347
Shaner, DL (1999) Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) in-hibitors in the United States: history, occurrence, detection, and management. J Weed Sci Technol 44:405411
Tranel, PJ, Wright, TR (2002) Resistance of weeds to ALS-inhibiting herbicides: what have we learned. Weed Sci 50:700712
Trezzi, MM, Felippi, CL, Mattei, D, Silva, HL, Nunes, AL, Debastiani, C, Vidal, RA, Maques, A (2005) Mulitple reistance to acetolactate synthase and protoprphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in Euphorbia heterophylla bioytpes. J Environ Sci Health Part B Pestic Food Contam Agric Wastes 40:101109
Warwick, Si, Xu, R, Sauder, C, Beckie, HJ (2008) Acetolactate synthase target-site mutations and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in ALS-resistant kochia (Kochia scoparia ). Weed Sci 56:797806
Whaley, CM, Wilson, HP, Westwood, JH (2006) ALS resistance in several smooth pigweed biotypes. Weed Sci 54:828832
Yu, Q, Heping, H, Powles, SB (2008) Mutations of the ALS gene endowing resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Lolium rigidum populations. Pest Manag Sci 64:12291236
Yu, Q, Powles, SB (2014) Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding. Pest Manag Sci 70:13401350
Zheng, DM, Kruger, GR, Singh, S, Davis, VM, Tranel, PJ, Weller, SC, Johnson, WG (2011) Cross-resistance of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) populations with three different ALS mutations. Pest Manag Sci 67:14861492



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed