Skip to main content Accessibility help

Acetolactate Synthase–Inhibiting, Herbicide-Resistant Rice Flatsedge (Cyperus iria): Cross-Resistance and Molecular Mechanism of Resistance

  • Dilpreet S. Riar (a1), Parsa Tehranchian (a2), Jason K. Norsworthy (a2), Vijay Nandula (a3), Scott McElroy (a4), Vibha Srivastava (a2), Shu Chen (a4), Jason A. Bond (a5) and Robert C. Scott (a6)...


Overuse of acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in rice has led to the evolution of halosulfuron-resistant rice flatsedge in Arkansas and Mississippi. Resistant accessions were cross-resistant to labeled field rates of ALS-inhibiting herbicides from four different families, in comparison to a susceptible (SUS) biotype. Resistance index of Arkansas and Mississippi accessions based on an R/S ratio of the lethal dose required for 50% plant mortality (LD50) to bispyribac-sodium, halosulfuron, imazamox, and penoxsulam was ≥ 21-fold. Control of Arkansas, Mississippi, and SUS accessions with labeled field rates of 2,4-D, bentazon, and propanil was ≥ 93%. An enzyme assay revealed that an R/S ratio for 50% inhibition (I50) of ALS for halosulfuron was 2,600 and 200 in Arkansas and Mississippi, respectively. Malathion studies did not reveal enhanced herbicide metabolism in resistant plants. The ALS enzyme assay and cross-resistance studies point toward altered a target site as the potential mechanism of resistance. Trp574–Leu amino acid substitution within the ALS gene was found in both Arkansas and Mississippi rice flatsedge accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform, which corresponds to the mechanism of resistance found in many weed species. Field-rate applications of 2,4-D, bentazon, and propanil can be used to control these ALS-resistant rice flatsedge accessions.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Baltazar, AM, Smith, RJ Jr. (1994) Propanil-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) control in rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Sci 8:576581
Brautigam, A, Gowik, U (2010) What can next generation sequencing do for you? next generation sequencing as a valuable tool in plant research. Plant Biol 12:831841
Bryson, CT, Carter, R (2004) Biology of pathways for invasive weeds. Weed Technol 18:12161220
Burgos, NR, Norsworthy, JK, Scott, RC, Smith, KL (2008) Red rice (Oryza sativa) status after 5 years of imidazolinone-resistant rice technology in Arkansas. Weed Technol 22:200208
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2010) Responses of rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) to rice interference. Weed Sci 58:204208
Donaldson, RP, Luster, DG (1991) Multiple forms of plant cytochromes P-450. Plant Physiol 96:669674
Fischer, AJ, Bayer, DE, Carriere, MD, Ateh, CM, Yim, KO (2000) Mechanisms of resistance to bispyribac-sodium in an Echinochloa phyllopogon accession. Pestic Biochem Physiol 68:156165
Galinato, MI, Moody, K, Piggin, CM (1999) Upland Rice Weeds of South and Southeast Asia, Makati City, Philippines International Rice Research Institute. 156 p
Haas, BJ, Papanicolaou, A, Yassour, M, Grabnerr, M, Blood, PD, Bowden, J, Couger, MB, Eccles, D, Li, B, Lieber, M, MacManes, MD, Ott, M, Orvis, J, Pochet, N, Strozzi, F, Weeks, N, Westerman, R, William, T, Dewey, CN, Henschel, R, LeDuc, RD, Friedman, N, Regev, A (2013) De novo transcript sequence reconstruction from RNA-seq using the Trinity platform for reference generation and analysis. Nat Protoc 8:14941512
Heap, I (2015) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds [online]. Accessed January 26, 2015
Jordan, DL (1995) Interactions of fenoxaprop-ethyl with bensulfuron and bentazon in dry-seeded rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technol 9:724727
Kohara, H, Konno, K, Takekawa, M (1999) Occurrence of sulfonylurea-resistant biotypes of Scirpus juncoides Roxb. var. ohwianus T. Koyama in paddy fields of Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. J Weed Sci Technol 44: 228235 [In Japanese with English abstract]
Levy, RJ Jr., Bond, JA, Webster, EP, Griffin, JL, Linscombe, SD (2006) Effect of cultural practices on weed control and crop response in imidazolinone-tolerant rice. Weed Technol 20:249254
Lovelace, ML (2003) Implications of Quinclorac Use in Arkansas: Impacts of Quinclorac Drift on Tomato Physiology and Development of Quinclorac Resistance in Barnyardgrass. Ph.D Dissertation. Fayetteville, AR University of Arkansas. Pp 7071
McElroy, JS, Flessner, ML, Wang, Z, Dane, F, Walker, RH, Wehtje, GR (2013) A Trp574 to Leu amino acid substitution in the ALS gene of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is associated with resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci 61:2125
McWilliam, H, Li, W, Uludag, M, Squizzato, S, Park, YM, Buso, N, Cowley, AP, Lopez, R. (2013) Analysis tools Web services from the EMBL-EBI. Nucleic Acids Res 41:W597–W600. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkt376
Merotto, A Jr., Jasieniuk, M, Osuna, MD, Vidotto, F, Ferrero, A, Fischer, AJ (2009) Cross-resistance to herbicides of five ALS-inhibiting groups and sequencing of the ALS gene in Cyperus difformis L. J Agric Food Chem 57:13891398
Mudge, CR, Webster, EP, Zhang, W, Leon, CT (2005) Rice (Oryza sativa) response to clomazone plus bensulfuron and halosulfuron. Weed Technol 19:879884
Murray, M, Thompson, WF (1980) Rapid isolation of high molecular weight plant DNA. Nucleic Acid Res 8:43214325
Nandula, VK, Messersmith, CG (2000) Mechanism of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) resistance to imazamethabenz-methyl. Pestic Biochem Physiol 68:148155
Norsworthy, JK, Bond, J, Scott, RC (2013) Weed management practices and needs in Arkansas and Mississippi rice. Weed Technol 27:623630
Panozzo, S, Scarabel, L, Tranel, PJ, Sattin, M (2013) Target-site resistance to ALS inhibitors in the polyploid species Echinochloa crus-galli . Pestic Biochem Physiol 105:93101
Perry, DH, Ellis, AT, Langston, VB, Lassiter, R, Thompson, GD, Viator, RP, Walton, LC, Weimer, MR (2015) Utility of a new arylpicolinate herbicide from Dow AgroSciences in U.S. Mid-South rice. Abstract 204 in Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America. Lexington, KY Weed Science Society of America
Powles, SB, Yu, Q (2010) Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Ann Rev Plant Biol 61:317347
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Bond, JA, Bararpour, MT, Wilson, MJ, Scott, RC (2012) Resistance of Echinochloa crus-galli populations to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. Intl J Agron 2012:893953. DOI: 10.1155/2012/893953
Riar, DS, Norsworthy, JK, Srivastava, V, Nandula, V, Bond, JA (2013) Physiological and molecular basis of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). J Agric Food Chem 61:278289
Roso, AC, Merotto, A, Delatorrea, CA, Menezes, (2010) Regional scale distribution of imidazolinone herbicide-resistant alleles in red rice (Oryza sativa L.) determined through SNP markers. Field Crops Res, 119:175182
Scarabel, L, Locascio, A, Furini, A, Sattin, M, Varotto, S (2010) Characterisation of ALS genes in the polyploid species Schoenoplectus mucronatus and implications for resistance management. Pest Manag Sci 66:337344
Scott, RC, Boyd, JW, Smith, KL, Selden, G, Norsworthy, JK (2012) Recommended Chemicals for Weed and Brush Control. Little Rock, AR University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service Miscellaneous Publication 44. 36 p
Siminszky, B (2006) Plant cytochrome P450-mediated herbicide metabolism. Phytochem Rev 5:445458
Sudianto, E, Beng-Kah, S, Ting-Xiang, N, Saldain, NE, Scott, RC, Burgos, NR (2014) Corrigendum to “Clearfield® rice: its development, success, and key challenges on a global perspective [Crop Prot 249 (2013) 40–51].” Crop Prot 55:142144
Tranel, PJ, Wright, TR (2002) Resistance of weeds to ALS-inhibiting herbicides: what have we learned? Weed Sci 50:700712
Tranel, PJ, Wright, TR, Heap, IM (2015) ALS Mutations from Herbicide-Resistant Weeds [online]. Accessed January 26, 2015
Uchino, A, Watanabe, H (2002) Mutations in the acetolactate synthase genes of sulfonylurea-resistant biotypes of Lindernia spp. Weed Biol Manag 2:104109
Uchino, A, Ogata, S, Kohara, H, Yoshida, S, Yoshioka, T, Watanabe, H (2007) Molecular basis of diverse responses to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides in sulfonylurea-resistant biotypes of Schoenoplectus juncoides . Weed Biol Manag 7:8996
Valverde, BE, Boddy, LG, Pedroso, RM, Eckert, JW, Fischer, AJ (2014) Cyperus difformis evolves resistance to propanil. Crop Prot 62:1622
Webster, EP, Carlson, TP, Salassi, ME, Hensley, JB, Blouin, DC (2012) Imazethapyr plus residual herbicide programs for imidazolinone-resistant rice. Weed Technol 26:410416
Weimer, MR, Yerkes, CN, Schmitzer, PR, Mann, RK (2015) Introduction to a new arylpicolinate herbicide from Dow AgroSciences with utility in rice and other crops. Abstract 201 in Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America. Lexington, KY Weed Science Society of America
Yerkes, CN, Deboer, GJ, Lowe, CT, Myung, K, Schmitzer, PR (2015) Discovery of a new arylpicolinate herbicide from dow agrosciences with utility in rice. Abstract 202 in Proceedings of the Weed Science Society of America. Lexington, KY Weed Science Society of America



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed