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Weedy rice update in Arkansas, USA, and adjacent locales

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  14 July 2021

Nilda Roma-Burgos*
Affiliation:
Professor, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Thomas R. Butts
Affiliation:
Assistant Professor and Extension Weed Scientist, University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture, Lonoke, AR, USA
Isabel S. Werle
Affiliation:
Graduate Assistant, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
Sunny Bottoms
Affiliation:
District Field Representative, Horizon Ag LLC, AR, USA
Andy Mauromoustakos
Affiliation:
Professor, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
*
Author for correspondence: Nilda Roma-Burgos, Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1371 West Altheimer Drive, DTAS 280, Fayetteville, AR, USA72704. E-mail: nburgos@uark.edu

Abstract

Weedy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most problematic weeds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. The commercialization of herbicide-resistant (HR) rice nearly two decades ago provided an effective tool to manage weedy rice; however, resistance evolution and volunteer HR hybrid rice kept weedy rice at the forefront of rice weed control needs. This research aimed to assess the prevalence and severity of weedy rice infestations, identify production practices that may have contributed to an increase in weedy rice, and determine control strategies that may still be effective on weedy rice across Arkansas and adjacent U.S. Midsouth locales. Two questionnaires, one for rice growers and consultants and one for County Extension agents (CEAs), were distributed through email and physical copies in 2020. Thirty-three respondents returned the rice grower (25) and consultant (8) survey, representing 26 and 7 counties in Arkansas and the Missouri Bootheel area, respectively, as well as four parishes in northeast Louisiana. Eighteen respondents returned the CEA survey. Respondents ranked weedy rice the third most problematic weed in rice, behind Echinochloa spp. and Cyperus spp. The most common infestation levels reported in 78% of fields was less than 12 m−2. Crop rotation (64% growers/consultants, 50% CEAs) and HR rice technology (27% growers/consultants, 50% CEAs) were the top two most-effective methods for weedy rice management, respectively. Tillage and crop rotation practices significantly influenced weedy rice infestation. Rice–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation had the lowest weedy rice infestation compared with rice monoculture and other crop rotation practices. Crop rotation was not practiced on 26% of reported fields, primarily due to poor drainage. The imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant rice technology was still effective (>70% control) in 60% of fields, but quizalofop-resistant rice is needed to control IMI-resistant weedy rice. Overall, weedy rice remains a challenging weed in rice production.

Type
Special Issue Article
Information
Weed Science , Volume 69 , Issue 5 , September 2021 , pp. 514 - 525
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Weed Science Society of America

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Footnotes

Associate Editor: William Vencill, University of Georgia

References

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