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Toluidine and Thiocarbamate Toxicity to Johnsongrass Rhizomes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 June 2017

Gordon W. Burt
Affiliation:
Dep. of Agron., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742

Abstract

The toxicity of several toluidine and thiocarbamate herbicides to johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] rhizome tissue was determined by a triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay. Rhizome sections were incubated in herbicide solutions for 24 hr and then in TTC solution for 24 hr. The amount of reduced TTC was a quantitative measure of herbicide toxicity. Concentrations of the different herbicides required to cause 100% tissue injury indicated that the order of decreasing herbicide toxicity was: USB-3584 (N 3,N 3-diethyl-2,4-dinitro-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3-phenylendiamine); trifluralin (α,α,α-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-p-toluidine); benefin (N-butyl-N-ethyl-α,α,α-trifluoro-2-6-dinitro-p-toluidine); nitralin [4-(methylsulfonyl)-2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropylaniline]; San-9789 [4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2-(α,α,α-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3(2H)-pyridazione]; and A-820 (Nsec-butyl-4-tert-butyl-2,6-dinitroaniline). In another study CGA-11607 (N-ethyl-N-tetrahydrofurfuryl-4-trifluoromethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline); AN-5647 [N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2,6-dinitro-p-toluidine]; and CGA-10832 (Nn-propyl-N-cyclopropylmethyl-4-trifluoromethyl-2,6-dinitroaniline) were less toxic than trifluralin to johnsongrass rhizomes. Complete tissue injury caused by the thiocarbamates occurred in the same concentration range (10−3 to 10−2M) as the toluidine herbicides. At a concentration required for complete kill the toxicity in decreasing order was: EPTC (S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate); vernolate (S-propyl dipropylthiocarbamate); butylate (S-ethyl diisobutylthiocarbamate); and pebulate (S-propyl butylethylthiocarbamate). R-25788 (N,N-diallyl-2,2-dichloroacetamide) at 6.7 × 10−5 M had no effect on vernolate, EPTC, or pebulate activity; but it increased the toxicity of butylate to johnsongrass rhizome tissue.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © 1974 by the Weed Science Society of America 

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References

1. Burt, G.W. and Wedderspoon, I.M. 1971. Growth of johnsongrass selections under different temperatures and dark periods. Weed Sci. 19:419423.Google Scholar
2. Davies, P.J. and Seaman, D.E. 1968. The tetrazolium reaction as a measure of the action of diquat in elodea. Weeds 16:293295.Google Scholar
3. Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J. 1969. Biometry. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. 776 pp.Google Scholar
4. Standifer, L.C. Jr. and Thomas, C.H. 1965. Response of johnsongrass to soil-incorporated trifluralin. Weeds 33:302306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. 1960. Principles and procedures of statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York. 581 pp.Google Scholar
6. Steponkus, P.L. and Lanphear, F.O. 1967. Refinement of the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride method of determining cold injury. Plant Physiol. 42:14231426.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed

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