Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-j5sqr Total loading time: 0.3 Render date: 2022-10-05T05:57:29.240Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Germination and emergence of common beggar’s-tick (Bidens alba) seeds at two different stages of afterripening as affected by environmental factors

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2020

Jialin Yu
Professor, Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Shaun M. Sharpe
Research Scientist, Science and Technology Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada/Government of Canada, Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, Ottawa, Canada
Nathan S. Boyd*
Associate Professor, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL, USA
Author for correspondence: Nathan S. Boyd, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL, 33598. (Email:


Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of various environmental factors and burial depth on germination and seedling emergence of common beggar’s-tick [Bidens alba (L.) DC.] seeds at two different stages of afterripening. Mature B. alba seeds were stored at 4 C for 3 to 5 mo (new seed lot) and 13 to 15 mo (old seed lot) until experiment initiation. Germination exponentially decreased with increasing moisture stress. Germination rate decreased from 87 ± 2.9% to 13 ± 6.1% as osmotic potential decreased from 0 to −0.5 MPa and was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials below −0.83 MPa. A large portion of the new seeds tested positively photoblastic, but seeds that had afterripened for 1 additional year were partially desensitized to the light requirement. New and old seeds still germinated to a greater percentage in the presence of light than under continuous dark at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 C. Both new and old seeds germinated over a range of temperatures from 5 to 35 C, but the optimum temperatures for germination was 15 to 30 C in the presence of light. Regardless of seed lot, seedling emergence was the greatest when seeds were sown at the soil surface. Seedling emergence was abruptly reduced when burial depth was 1 cm or greater. Based on these results, we conclude that shallow cultivation could effectively suppress this population of B. alba from emerging when incorporated into an integrated control strategy. The information obtained in this research identifies some important factors that facilitate the widespread presence of B. alba in Florida and may contribute to weed management programs.

Research Article
Weed Science , Volume 68 , Issue 5 , September 2020 , pp. 503 - 509
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of Weed Science Society of America

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Associate Editor: Hilary A. Sandler, University of Massachusetts


Allen, PS, Meyer, SE, Beckstead, J (1995) Patterns of seed after-ripening in Bromus tectorum L. J Exp Bot 46:17371744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ballard, R (1986) Bidens pilosa complex (Asteraceae) in North and Central America. Am J Bot 73:14521465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baskin, CC, Baskin, JM (1998) Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Lexington, KY: Elsevier. Pp 133179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baskin, JM, Baskin, CC (1974) Some eco-physiological aspects of seed dormancy in Geranium carolinianum L. from central Tennessee. Oecologia 16:209219CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Baskin, JM, Baskin, CC (1986) Temperature requirements for after-ripening in seeds of nine winter annuals. Weed Res 26:375380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bazin, J, Batlla, D, Dussert, S, El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H, Bailly, C (2011) Role of relative humidity, temperature, and water status in dormancy alleviation of sunflower seeds during dry after-ripening. J Exp Bot 62:627640CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benvenuti, S (2003) Soil texture involvement in germination and emergence of buried weed seeds. Agron J 95:191198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benvenuti, S, Macchia, M (1995) Effect of hypoxia on buried weed seed germination. Weed Res 35:343351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benvenuti, S, Macchia, M, Miele, S (2001) Quantitative analysis of emergence of seedlings from buried weed seeds with increasing soil depth. Weed Sci 49:528535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bibbey, RO (1948) Physiological studies of weed seed germination. Plant Physiol 23:467484CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boyd, N, Hughes, A (2011) Germination and emergence characteristics of spreading dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium). Weed Sci 59:533537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boyd, NS, Van Acker, RC (2003) The effects of depth and fluctuating soil moisture on the emergence of eight annual and six perennial plant species. Weed Sci 51:725730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, JW (1939) Respiration of acorns as related to temperature and after-ripening. Plant Physiol 14:621645CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Busey, P, Johnston, DL (2006) Impact of cultural factors on weed populations in St. Augustinegrass turf. Weed Sci 54:961967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, BS, Gill, G, Preston, C (2006) Factors affecting seed germination of annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) in southern Australia. Weed Sci 54:854860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2008a) Influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of eclipta (Eclipta prostrata) in a tropical environment. Weed Sci 56:383388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2008b) Seed germination and seedling emergence of giant sensitiveplant (Mimosa invisa). Weed Sci 56:244248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chauhan, BS, Johnson, DE (2009) Germination ecology of spiny (Amaranthus spinosus) and slender amaranth (A. viridis): troublesome weeds of direct-seeded rice. Weed Sci 57:379385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chen, SSC, Varner, JE (1970) Respiration and protein synthesis in dormant and after-ripened seeds of Avena fatua. Plant Physiol 46:108112CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbineau, F, Rudnicki, R, Côme, D (1988) Induction of secondary dormancy in sunflower seeds by high temperature. Possible involvement of ethylene biosynthesis. Physiol Plant 73:368373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davis, WE, Rose, RC (1912) The effect of external conditions upon the after-ripening of the seeds of Crataegus mollis. Bot Gaz 54:4962Google Scholar
Eckerson, S (1913) A physiological and chemical study of after-ripening. Bot Gaz 55:286299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egley, GH (1990) High-temperature effects on germination and survival of weed seeds in soil. Weed Sci 38:429435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Evers, GW (1980) Germination of cool-season annual clovers. Agron J 72:537540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fenner, M (1980) The inhibition of germination of Bidens pilosa seeds by leaf canopy shade in some natural vegetation types. New Phytol 84:95101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foley, ME (1994) Temperature and water status of seed affect afterripening in wild oat (Avena fatua). Weed Sci 42:200204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gallardo, M, Sanchez-Calle, I, Rueda, PMD, Matilla, AJ (1996) Alleviation of thermoinhibition in chickpea seeds by putrescine involves the ethylene pathway. Funct Plant Biol 23:479487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ghorbani, R, Seel, W, Leiferr, C (1999) Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. Weed Sci 47:505510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, DW, Vandiver, VV, Ferrell, JA (1991) Common Beggar’s-Tick, Bidens alba (L.) D.C. Gainesville: Agronomy Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Accessed: May 5, 2020Google Scholar
Hills, PN, Staden, V (2003) Thermoinhibition of seed germination. S Afr J Bot 69:455461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jha, P, Norsworthy, JK, Kumar, V, Reichard, N (2015) Annual changes in temperature and light requirements for Ipomoea purpurea seed germination with after-ripening in the field following dispersal. Crop Prot 67:8490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
KeÇpczyński, J, KeÇpczyńska, E (1997) Ethylene in seed dormancy and germination. Physiol Plant 1010:720726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Khandaker, MM, Majrashi, A, Boyce, AN (2016) Physico-chemical changes during and after ripening in Syzygium samarangense (Wax apple var. Jambu madu) fruits: a review. Adv Environ Biol 10:6976Google Scholar
Kleemann, SG, Gill, G (2018) Seed germination and seedling recruitment behavior of winged sea lavender (Limonium lobatum) in southern Australia. Weed Sci 66:485493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leck, MA, Baskin, CC, Baskin, JM (1994) Germination ecology of Bidens laevis (Asteraceae) from a tidal freshwater wetland. Bull Torrey Bot Club 121:230239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martinkova, Z, Honek, A, Lukas, J (2006) Seed age and storage conditions influence germination of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-gallis). Weed Sci 54:298304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michel, BE (1983) Evaluation of the water potentials of solutions of polyethylene glycol 8000 both in the absence and presence of other solutes. Plant Physiol 72:6670CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morscher, F, Kranner, I, Arc, E, Bailly, C, Roach, T (2015) Glutathione redox state, tocochromanols, fatty acids, antioxidant enzymes and protein carbonylation in sunflower seed embryos associated with after-ripening and ageing. Ann Bot 116:669678CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nascimento, WM, Cantliffe, DJ, Huber, DJ (2000) Thermotolerance in lettuce seeds: association with ethylene and endo-β-mannanase. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 125:518524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pack, DA (1921) After-ripening and germination of Juniperus seeds. Bot Gaz 71:3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pollock, BM, Harvey, O (1959) Studies of the rest period. I. growth, translocation, and respiratory changes in the embryonic organs of the after-ripening cherry seed. Plant Physiol 34:131142CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ramirez, AH, Jhala, AJ, Singh, M (2012) Germination and emergence characteristics of common beggar’s-tick (Bidens alba). Weed Sci 60:374378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reddy, KN, Singh, M (1992) Germination and emergence of hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa). Weed Sci 40:195199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sawhney, R, Naylor, JM (2011) Dormancy studies in seed of Avena fatua. Influence of drought stress during seed development on duration of seed dormancy. Can J Bot 60:10161020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharpe, SM, Boyd, NS (2019) Black medic (Medicago lupulina) germination response to temperature and osmotic potential, and a novel growing degree-day accounting restriction for heat-limited germination. Weed Sci 67:246252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stefano, B, Mario, M (1997) Germination ecophysiology of bur beggarticks (Bidens tripartita) as affected by light and oxygen. Weed Sci 45:696700Google Scholar
Taylorson, RB (1967) Seasonal variation in sprouting and available carbohydrate in yellow nutsedge tubers. Weeds 15:2224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiryaki, I, Keles, H (2012) Reversal of the inhibitory effect of light and high temperature on germination of Phacelia tanacetifolia seeds by melatonin. J Pineal Res 52:332339CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
[USDA-NRCS] U.S. Department of Agriculture–Natural Resources Conservation Service (2020) Bidens L. Beggarticks. Greensboro, NC: National Plant Data Team. Accessed: August 6, 2017Google Scholar
Wang, H, Zhang, B, Dong, L, Lou, Y (2016) Seed germination ecology of catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine). Weed Sci 64:634641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woolley, JT, Stoller, EW (1978) Light penetration and light-induced seed germination in soil. Plant Physiol 61:597600CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Germination and emergence of common beggar’s-tick (Bidens alba) seeds at two different stages of afterripening as affected by environmental factors
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Germination and emergence of common beggar’s-tick (Bidens alba) seeds at two different stages of afterripening as affected by environmental factors
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Germination and emergence of common beggar’s-tick (Bidens alba) seeds at two different stages of afterripening as affected by environmental factors
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *