Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-lzpzj Total loading time: 0.243 Render date: 2021-02-28T02:06:04.218Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

Formation and Movement of 14C-Atrazine Degradation Products in a Clay Loam Soil in the Field

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 June 2017

Brent A. Sorenson
Affiliation:
Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
William C. Koskinen
Affiliation:
Soil and Water Res. Unit, U.S. Dep. Agric., Agric. Res Serv., St. Paul, MN 55108
Douglas D. Buhler
Affiliation:
National Soil Tilth Lab., U.S. Dep. Agric., Agric. Res. Serv., Ames, IA 50011
Donald L. Wyse
Affiliation:
Dep. Agron. and Plant Genet., Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
William E. Lueschen
Affiliation:
South. Exp. Stn., Univ. Minnesota, Waseca, MN 56093
Michael D. Jorgenson
Affiliation:
Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108

Abstract

Formation of 14C-atrazine degradation products and their distribution in the top 90 cm of soil was determined over 16 mo in a Webster clay loam in the field. After 16 mo, 64% of the applied 14C could still be accounted for in the 90-cm soil profile. At 1 mo after treatment (MAT), 14C moved to the 70- to 80-cm depth. Rapid movement of radioactivity could be attributed in part to preferential movement through vertical macropores. Atrazine accounted for 32% of the 14C applied 16 MAT and was the predominant 14C-compound in soil below 10 cm through 12 MAT. Hydroxyatrazine (HA) was the major degradation product in the top 10 cm of soil accounting for 9% of the 14C present 1 MAT and increasing to 24% within 6 MAT. Deethylatrazine (BEA) was the predominant degradation product at depths greater than 10 cm, accounting for 26% of the 14C in the 10- to 20-cm depth 16 MAT. Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) accounted for less than 10% of the 14C recovered at any soil depth. Deethyldeisopropylatrazine (DEDIA) and an unidentified product were detected in soil extracts 1 MAT indicating further degradation past primary metabolites. The proportion of DEA and DIA increased while the proportion of HA decreased as soil depth increased indicating that DEA and DIA are more mobile in soil than HA. The large amount of radioactivity remaining in the soil 16 MAT suggests that a large pool of atrazine and its degradation products are present in the soil for a long period of time, having the potential to move deeper in the soil and ultimately contaminate ground water.

Type
Soil, Air, and Water
Copyright
Copyright © 1994 by the Weed Science Society of America 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1. Adams, C. D. and Thurman, E. M. 1991. Formation and transport of deethylatrazine in soil and unsaturated zone. J. Environ. Qual. 20:540547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2. Armstrong, D. E., Chesters, G., and Harris, R. F. 1967. Atrazine hydrolysis in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 31:6166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3. Barbee, G. C. and Brown, K. W. 1986. Comparison between suction and free-drainage soil solution samplers. Soil Sci. 141:149154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4. Behki, R. M. and Khan, S. U. 1986. Degradation of atrazine by Pseudomonas: N-dealkylation and dehalogenation of atrazine and its metabolites. J. Agric. Food Chem. 34:746749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
5. Beven, K. and Germann, P. 1982. Macropores and water flow in soils. Water Resour. Res. 18: 13111325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
6. Bowman, B. T. 1990. Mobility and persistence of alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor in Plainfield sand, and atrazine and isazofos in Honey wood silt loam, using field lysimeters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9:453461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
7. Brouwer, W. W. M., Boesten, J. J. T. I., and Siegers, W. G. 1990. Adsorption of transformation products of atrazine by soil. Weed Res. 30:123128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8. Capriel, P. and Haisch, A. 1983. Persistence of atrazine and its metabolites in soil after a single herbicide application. Weed Res. 30:123128.Google Scholar
9. Clay, S.A. and Koskinen, W. C. 1990. Adsorption and desorption of atrazine, hydroxyatrazine, and s-glutathione atrazine in two soils. Weed Sci. 38:262266.Google Scholar
10. Cook, A. M. and Hutter, R. 1981. s-triazines as nitrogen sources for bacteria. J. Agric. Food Chem. 29:11351143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
11. Gan, J., Koskinen, W. C., Becker, R. L., Buhler, D. D., and Jarvis, L. J. 1993. Biodegradation of alachlor and atrazine as a function of concentration in New Directions in Pesticide Research, Development, Management, and Policy. Virginia Water Resources Res. Ctr., Richmond, VA (in press).Google Scholar
12. Giardina, M. C., Giardi, M. T., and Filacchioni, G. 1980. 4-Amino-2-chloro-1,3,5-triazine: A new metabolite of atrazine by soil bacterium. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44:20672072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
13. Giardina, M. C., Giardi, M. T., and Filacchioni, G. 1982. Atrazine metabolism by Nocardia: Elucidation of initial pathway and synthesis of potential metabolites. Agric. Biol. Chem. 46:14391445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
14. Giardi, M. T., Giardina, M. C., and Filacchioni, G. 1985. Chemical and biological degradation of primary metabolites of atrazine by a Nocardia strain. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49:15511558.Google Scholar
15. Hall, J. K., Murray, M. R., and Hartwig, N. L. 1989. Herbicide leaching and distribution in tilled and untilled soil. J. Environ. Qual. 18:439445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
16. Isensee, A. R., Nash, R. G., and Helling, C. S. 1990. Effect of conventional vs. no-tillage on pesticide leaching to shallow groundwater. J. Environ. Qual. 19:434440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17. Kaufman, D. D. and Blake, J. 1970. Degradation of atrazine by soil fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2:7380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Laird, D. A., Barriuso, E., Dowdy, R. H., and Koskinen, W. C. 1992. Adsorption of atrazine on smectites. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56:6267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19. Muir, D. C. and Baker, B. E. 1976. Detection of triazine herbicides and their degradation products in tile-drain water from fields under intensive corn (Maize) production. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24:122125.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
20. Muir, D. C. G. and Baker, B. E. 1978. The disappearance and movement of three triazine herbicides and several of their degradation products under field conditions. Weed Res. 18:111120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Pionke, H. B. and Glotfelty, D. W. 1990. Contamination of groundwater by atrazine and selected metabolites. Chemosphere 21:813822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22. Ritter, W. F. 1990. Pesticide contamination of ground water in the United States—A review. J. Environ. Sci. Health Part B. 25:129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Schiavon, M. 1988. Studies of the leaching of atrazine, of its chlorinated derivatives, and of hydroxyatrazine from soil using 14C ring-labeled compounds under outdoor conditions. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 15:4654.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24. Skipper, H. D., Gilmour, C. M., and Furtick, W. R. 1967. Microbial versus chemical degradation of atrazine in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 31:653656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
25. Sorenson, B. A., Wyse, D. L., Koskinen, W. C., Buhler, D. D., Lueschen, W. E., and Jorgenson, M. D. 1993. Formation and movement of 14C-atrazine degradation products in a sandy loam soil under field conditions. Weed Sci. 41:239245.Google Scholar
26. Starr, J. L. and Glotfelty, D. E. 1990. Atrazine and bromide movement through a silt loam soil. J. Environ. Qual. 19:552558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 5 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 12th June 2017 - 28th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Formation and Movement of 14C-Atrazine Degradation Products in a Clay Loam Soil in the Field
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Formation and Movement of 14C-Atrazine Degradation Products in a Clay Loam Soil in the Field
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Formation and Movement of 14C-Atrazine Degradation Products in a Clay Loam Soil in the Field
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *