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Retrograde endocannabinoid inhibition of goldfish retinal cones is mediated by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol

  • SHIH-FANG FAN (a1) and STEPHEN YAZULLA (a1)

Abstract

A functional role for retinal endocannabinoids has not been determined. We characterized retrograde suppression of membrane currents of goldfish cones in a retinal slice. Whole-cell recordings were obtained from cone inner segments under voltage clamp. IK(V) was elicited by a depolarizing pulse to +54 mV from a holding potential of −70 mV. A fifty-millisecond puff of saline with 70 mM KCl or Group I mGluR agonist DHPG was applied through a pipette directly at a mixed rod/cone (Mb) bipolar cell body. The amplitude of IK(V) decreased 25% compared to the pre-puff control. Retrograde suppression of IK(V) was blocked by CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A. The FAAH inhibitor URB597 had no effect on the suppression of IK(V), whereas nimesulide, a COX-2 inhibitor, prolonged the effects of the K+ puff 10-fold. Orlistat, a blocker of 2-AG synthesis, blocked the effect of the K+ puff. Group I mGluR activation of Gq/11 was demonstrated in that a puff with DHPG decreased IK(V) of cones by 32%, an effect blocked by SR141716A. The effect of DHPG was not blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP, indicating involvement of mGluR1. The suppressive effect of the K+ puff vanished in a Ca2+-free, 2 mM Co2+ saline. TMB-8 or ryanodine, blocked the effect of DHPG, but not that of the K+ puff, showing that calcium influx or release from intracellular stores could mediate retrograde release. We suggest that retrograde suppression of cone IK(V) is mediated by Ca2+-dependent release of 2-AG from Mb bipolar cell dendrites by separate mechanisms: (1) voltage-dependent, mimicked by the K+ puff, that may be activated by the depolarizing ON response to light; (2) voltage-independent, occurring under ambient illumination, mediated by tonic mGluR1 activation. The negative feedback of this latter mechanism could regulate tonic glutamate release from cones within narrow limits, regardless of ambient illumination.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address correspondence and reprint requests to: Stephen Yazulla, Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5230. E-mail: Stephen.Yazulla@stonybrook.edu

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Keywords

Retrograde endocannabinoid inhibition of goldfish retinal cones is mediated by 2-arachidonoyl glycerol

  • SHIH-FANG FAN (a1) and STEPHEN YAZULLA (a1)

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