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Preganglionic endings from nucleus of Edinger-Westphal in pigeon ciliary ganglion contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase

  • SHERRY CUTHBERTSON (a1), YURI S. ZAGVAZDIN (a1), TOYA D.H. KIMBLE (a1), WILLIAM J. LAMOREAUX (a2), BRYAN S. JACKSON (a1), MALINDA E.C. FITZGERALD (a1) (a3) and ANTON REINER (a1)...

Abstract

The avian ciliary ganglion (CG) controls choroidal blood flow by its choroidal neurons, and pupil constriction and accommodation by its ciliary neurons. It was previously reported that both choroidal and ciliary neurons label positively for NADPH diaphorase (NADPHd), a marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS). To assess if this labeling is preganglionic or postganglionic and to determine if it is attributable to neuronal NOS (nNOS), we studied pigeon CG using NADPHd histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry (IHC). Short-duration staining times by NADPHd histochemistry yielded intense labeling of structures that appeared to be the cap-like endings on ciliary neurons and the boutonal endings on choroidal neurons that arise from the nucleus of Edinger-Westphal (EW), and light or no postganglionic perikaryal staining. The light postganglionic staining that was observed tended to be localized to ciliary neurons. Consistent with this, NADPHd+ nerve fibers were observed in the postganglionic ciliary nerves but rarely in the postganglionic choroidal nerves. These same staining times yielded robust staining of neurons in the orbital pterygopalatine microganglia network, which are known to be nNOS+. Diffuse staining of CG perikarya was observed with longer staining durations, and this staining tended to mask the preganglionic labeling. Preganglionic NADPHd+ staining in CG with short staining times was blocked by the NOS inhibitors iodonium diphenyl (IDP) and dichlorophenol-indophenol (DPIP), but the diffuse postganglionic staining observed with the longer staining times was not completely blocked. Labeling of CG sections for substance P (SP) by IHC (which labels EW-originating preganglionic endings in CG) and subsequently for NADPHd confirmed that NADPHd was localized to preganglionic endings on CG neurons. Immunohistochemical double labeling for nNOS and SP or enkephalin further confirmed that nNOS is found in boutonal and cap-like endings in the CG. Two studies were then carried out to demonstrate that the nNOS+ preganglionic endings in CG arise from EW. First, NADPHd+ and nNOS+ neurons were observed in EW in pigeons treated with colchicine to enhance perikaryal labeling. Second, NADPHd+ and nNOS+ preganglionic endings were eliminated from CG ipsilateral to an EW lesion. These various results indicate that NOS is present in EW-arising preganglionic endings on choroidal and ciliary neurons in avian CG. NOS also appears to be found in some ciliary neurons, but its presence in choroidal neurons is currently uncertain.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Anton Reiner, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, The University of Tennessee-Memphis, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, USA. E-mail: AREINER@UTMEM1.UTMEM.EDU

Keywords

Preganglionic endings from nucleus of Edinger-Westphal in pigeon ciliary ganglion contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase

  • SHERRY CUTHBERTSON (a1), YURI S. ZAGVAZDIN (a1), TOYA D.H. KIMBLE (a1), WILLIAM J. LAMOREAUX (a2), BRYAN S. JACKSON (a1), MALINDA E.C. FITZGERALD (a1) (a3) and ANTON REINER (a1)...

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