Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The ontogeny of ultraviolet photosensitivity in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

  • Craig W. Hawryshyn (a1), Margaret G. Arnold (a1), Duane J. Chaisson (a1) and Patricia C. Martin (a1)

Abstract

The present study examines the changes in ultraviolet (UV) photosensitivity that occur during the growth of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). A comparison of the ocular media transmission of small (n = 3) and large (n = 3) trout eyes did not reveal large changes in the transmission of UV radiation through the eye. We used the heart-rate conditioning technique to measure spectral sensitivity in immobilized trout. Four trout, each weighing less than 30 g, exhibited a UV-sensitivity peak at 360 nm while four additional trout weighing more than 60 g each exhibited no evidence of UV sensitivity. Spectral-sensitivity measurements of two trout weighing 44 g and 60 g revealed UV sensitivity, but when measured one month later (after a 25% increase in body weight) both fish exhibited no UV-sensitivity peak. At this time their sensitivity appeared to conform to the known blue-sensitive cone mechanism.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Ali, M.A. (1975). Temperature and vision. Revue Canadienne de Biologie 34, 131186.
Avery, J.A., Bowmaker, J.K., Djamgoz, M.G.A. & Downing, J.L.G. (1983). Ultraviolet-sensitive receptors in a freshwater fish. Journal of Physiology (London) 334, 23P.
Beauchamp, R.D., Rowe, J.S. & O'reilly, L.A. (1979). Goldfish spectral sensitivity: identification of the three cone mechanisms in heart-rate conditioned fish using colored adapting backgrounds. Vision Research 19, 12951302.
Bassi, C.J., Williams, R.C. & Powers, M.K. (1984). Light transmittance by goldfish eyes of different sizes. Vision Research 24, 14151419.
Blaxter, J.H.S. (1975). The eyes of larval fish. In Vision in Fishes: New Approaches in Research, ed. Ali, M.A., pp. 427443. New York: Plenum Press.
Blaxter, J.H.S. (1968). Light intensity, vision, and feeding in young plaice. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 2, 293307.
Blaxter, J.H.S. & Jones, M.P. (1967). The development of the retina and retinomotor responses in the herring. Journal of Marine Biological Association (UK) 47, 677697.
Boelhert, G.W. (1978). Intraspecific evidence for the function of single and double cones in the teleost retina. Science 202, 309311.
Bowmaker, J.K. & Kunz, Y.W. (1987). Ultraviolet receptors, tetra-chromatic colour vision, and retinal mosaics in the brown trout (Salmo trutta): age-dependent changes. Vision Research 27, 21012108.
Branchek, T. (1984). Development of photoreceptors in the zebrafish. II. Function. Journal of Comparative Neurology 224, 116122.
Branchek, T. & Bremiller, R. (1984). The development of photoreceptors in the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). I. Structure. Journal of Comparative Neurology 224, 107115.
Cronly-Dillon, J.R. & Stafford, C.A. (1986). Goldfish retina and tectum influence each other's growth activity during regrowth of the retinotectal projection. Developmental Brain Research 30, 1323.
Douglas, R.H. (1983). Spectral sensitivity of rainbow trout (Salmogairdneri). Revue Canadienne de Biologie Expérimental 42, 117122.
Douglas, R.H. (1986). Photopic spectral sensitivity of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) with special reference to its ultraviolet sensitivity. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 159, 415421.
Easter, S.S. & Johns, P.R. (1977). Growth of the adult goldfish eye. I. Optics. Vision Research 17, 469477.
Ebrey, T.G. & Honig, B. (1977). New wavelength-dependent visual pigment nomograms. Vision Research 17, 147151.
Fernald, R.D. (1985). Growth of the teleost eye: novel solutions to complex constraints. Environmental Biology of Fishes 13, 113123.
Fernald, R.D. & Wright, S.E. (1985 a). Growth of the visual system in the African cichlid fish (Haplochromis burtoni): optics. Vision Research 25, 155161.
Fernald, R.D. & Wright, S.E. (1985 b). Growth of the visual system in the African cichlid fish (Haplochromis burtoni): accomodation. Vision Research 25, 163170.
Hariston, N.G., Kao, T.L. & Easter, S.S. Jr (1982). Fish vision and the detection of plankton prey. Science 218, 12401242.
Harosi, F.I. (1985). Ultraviolet and violet absorbing vertebrate visual pigments: dichroic and bleaching properties. In The Visual System, ed. Fein, A. & Levine, J.S., pp. 4155. New York: Alan R. Liss.
Harosi, F.I. & Hashimoto, Y. (1983). Ultraviolet visual pigment in a vertebrate: a tetrachromatic cone system in the dace. Science 222, 10211023.
Hawryshyn, C.W. & Beauchamp, R.D. (1982). Aberrant high-blue sensitivity in goldfish. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Suppl.) 22, 282.
Hawryshyn, C.W. & Beauchamp, R.D. (1985). Ultraviolet photosen-sitivity in goldfish: an independent UV retinal mechanism. Vision Research 25, 1120.
Hawryshyn, C.W., Arnold, M.G., Chaisson, D.J. & Marin, P.C. (1987). Developmental changes in ultraviolet photosensitivity in rainbow trout. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 13, 1298.
Hawryshyn, C.W., Chou, B.R. & Beauchamp, R.D. (1985). Ultraviolet transmission by the ocular media of goldfish: implications for ultraviolet photosensitivity in fishes. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63, 12441251.
Hawryshyn, C.W. & McFarland, W.N. (1987). Cone-photorecep-tor mechanisms and the detection of polarized light in fish. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 160, 459465.
Hoar, W.S. (1976). Smolt transformation: evolution, behavior, and physiology. Journal of the Fishes Research Board of Canada 33, 12341252.
Hoar, W.S. (1988). The physiology of smoltering salmonids. In Fish Physiology, Vol. XIB, eds. Hoar, W.S. & Randall, D.J., pp. 275343. New York: Academic Press.
Jacobs, G.H. & Neitz, J. (1984). Development of spectral mechanisms in the ground squirrel retina following lid opening. Experimental Brain Research 55, 507514.
Johns, P.R. & Fernald, R.D. (1981). Genesis of rods in teleost fish retina. Nature 293, 141142.
Kunz, Y.W. (1987). Tracts of putative ultraviolet receptors in the retina of the two-year-old brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Experienta 43, 12021204.
Leatherland, J.F. (1982). Environmental physiology of the teleostean thyroid gland. A review. Environmental Biology of Fishes 7, 83110.
Lyall, A.H. (1957 a). The growth of the trout retina. Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science 98, 101110.
Lyall, A.H. (1957 b). Cone arrangements in teleost retinae. Quarterly Journal of Microscopic Science 98, 189201.
McCandless, R.L., Hoffert, J.R. & Fromm, P.O. (1969). Light transmission by corneas, aqueous humor, and crystalline lenses of fishes. Vision Research 9, 223232.
Macy, A. & Easter, S.S. Jr, (1981). Growth-related changes in the size of receptive-field centers of retinal ganglion cells in goldfish. Vision Research 21, 14971504.
Neave, D.A. (1984). The development of visual acuity in larval plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 78, 167175.
Neumeyer, C. (1984). On spectral sensitivity in the goldfish: evidence for neural interactions between different “cone mechanisms.” Vision Research 24, 12231231.
Neumeyer, C. (1985). An ultraviolet receptor as a fourth receptor type in goldfish color vision. Naturissenschaften 72, 162163.
Neumeyer, C. (1986). Wavelength discrimination in goldfish. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 158, 203213.
Noakes, D.G.L. & Godin, J.G.J. (1988). Ontogeny of behavior and concurrent developmental changes in sensory systems in teleost fishes. In Fish Physiology, Vol. XIB, ed. Hoar, W.S. & Randall, D.J., pp. 345395. New York: Academic Press.
Powers, M.K., Bassi, C.J., Rone, L.A. & Raymond, P.A. (1988). Visual detection by the rod system in goldfish of different sizes. Vision Research 28, 211221.
Pankhurst, N.W. (1984). Retinal development in larval and juvenile European ell, Anguilla anguilla (L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 62, 334343.
Rahmann, H.Deserich, G. & Zeutzius, I. (1979). Ontogeny of visual acuity of rainbow trout under normal conditions and light deprivation. Behaviour 68, 315322.
Raymond, P.A. (1986). Movement of retinal terminals in goldfish optic tectum predicted by analysis of neuronal proliferation. Journal of Neuroscience 6, 24792488.
Schmidt, J.T. (1982). The formation of retinotectal projections. Trends in Neuroscience 5, 111115.
Tsin, A.T.C. & Beatty, D.D. (1979). Scotopic visual pigment composition in the retinas and vitamins A in the pigment epithelium of the goldfish. Experimental Eye Research 29, 1526.
Tsin, A.T.C. & Beatty, D.D. (1977). Visual pigment changes in rainbow trout in response to temperature. Science 195, 13581360.

Keywords

The ontogeny of ultraviolet photosensitivity in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

  • Craig W. Hawryshyn (a1), Margaret G. Arnold (a1), Duane J. Chaisson (a1) and Patricia C. Martin (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed