Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian retina and has been shown to influence the responses of ganglion cells. Midget and parasol ganglion cells serve distinct physiological roles in the primate retina and show differences in their response characteristics to light stimuli. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether the expression of glycine receptors differs in midget and parasol ganglion cells. Ganglion cells in the retinae of marmoset and macaque monkeys were injected with Neurobiotin in a live in vitro retinal whole-mount preparation. Retinal pieces were then processed with an antibody against the α1 subunit of the glycine receptor. Strong punctate immunoreactivity indicative of synaptic localization is present in the ON and OFF sublamina of the inner plexiform layer. Many of the immunoreactive puncta coincide with the dendrites of both midget and parasol ganglion cells. Immunoreactive puncta are present on distal and proximal dendrites of ON and OFF cells. These results suggest that ON and OFF midget and parasol cells do not differ with respect to the distribution of the α1 subunit of the glycine receptor.