Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-hcvhd Total loading time: 0.233 Render date: 2021-04-15T15:31:55.127Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Three comments on Teller’s “bridge locus”

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 November 2013

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York
E-mail address:


The notion of a set of neurons that form a “bridge locus” serving as the immediate substrate of visual perception is examined in the light of evidence on the architecture of the visual pathway, of current thinking about perceptual representations, and of the basis of perceptual awareness. The bridge locus is likely to be part of a tangled web of representations, and this complexity raises the question of whether another scheme that relies less on geography might offer a better framework. The bridge locus bears a close relationship to the neural correlate of consciousness (NCC), and like the NCC may be a concept which is no longer precise enough to provide a useful basis for reasoning about the relationship between brain activity and perceptual experience.

Retrospective and prospective analyses of linking propositions
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Averbeck, B.B., Latham, P.E. & Pouget, A. (2006). Neural correlations, population coding and computation. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 7, 358366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beck, J.M., Ma, W.J., Kiani, R., Hanks, T., Churchland, A.K., Roitman, J., Shadlen, M.N., Latham, P.E. & Pouget, A. (2008). Probabilistic population codes for Bayesian decision making. Neuron 60, 11421152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Block, N. (2005). Two neural correlates of consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Science 9, 4652.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brindley, G.S. (1960). Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Brindley, G.S. (1970). Physiology of the Retina and Visual Pathway (2nd ed.). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Crick, F. & Koch, C. (2003). A framework for consciousness. Nature Neuroscience 6, 119126.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ernst, M.O. & Banks, M.S. (2002). Humans integrate visual and haptic information in a statistically optimal fashion. Nature 415, 429433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Felleman, D.J. & Van Essen, D.C. (1991). Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex 1, 147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ganguli, D. & Simoncelli, E.P. (2011). Implicit encoding of prior probabilities in optimal neural populations. In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS*10), ed. Lafferty, J., Williams, C., Zemel, R., Shawe-Taylor, J. & Culotta, A., pp. 658666. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Girshick, A.R., Landy, M.S. & Simoncelli, E.P. (2011). Cardinal rules: Visual orientation perception reflects knowledge of environmental statistics. Nature Neuroscience 14, 926932.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregory, R.L. (1966). Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.Google Scholar
Gu, Y., Angelaki, D.E. & Deangelis, G.C. (2008). Neural correlates of multisensory cue integration in macaque MSTd. Nature Neuroscience 11, 12011210.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guillery, R.W. & Sherman, S.M. (2002). Thalamic relay functions and their role in corticocortical communication: Generalizations from the visual system. Neuron 33, 120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hart, W.D. (1996). Dualism. In A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed. Guttenplan, S., pp. 265267. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Hedges, J.H., Gartshteyn, Y., Kohn, A., Rust, N.C., Shadlen, M.N., Newsome, W.T. & Movshon, J.A. (2011). Dissociation of neuronal and psychophysical responses to local and global motion. Current Biology: CB 21, 20232028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Helmholtz, H.V. (1924). Treatise on Physiological Optics (trans. Southall, J.P.). Rochester, NY: Optical Society of America.Google Scholar
Hilgetag, C.-C., O’Neill, M.A. & Young, M.P. (1996). Indeterminate organization of the visual system. Science 271, 776777.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hubel, D.H. & Wiesel, T.N. (2004). Brain and Visual Perception. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jazayeri, M. & Movshon, J.A. (2006). Optimal representation of sensory information by neural populations. Nature Neuroscience 9, 690696.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jazayeri, M. & Movshon, J.A. (2007). A new perceptual illusion reveals mechanisms of sensory decoding. Nature 446, 912915.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lettvin, J.Y., Maturana, H.R., Mcculloch, W.S. & Pitts, W.H. (1959). What the frog’s eye tells the frogs brain. Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 47, 19401951.
Lieberman, M.D. & Cunningham, W.A. (2009). Type I and Type II error concerns in fMRI research: Re-balancing the scale. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 4, 423428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Markov, N.T., Ercsey-Ravasz, M.M., Ribeiro Gomes, A.R., Lamy, C., Magrou, L., Vezoli, J., Misery, P., Falchier, A., Quilodran, R., Gariel, M.A., Sallet, J., Gamanut, R., Huissoud, C., Clavagnier, S., Giroud, P., Sappey-Marinier, D., Barone, P., Dehay, C., Toroczkai, Z., Knoblauch, K., Van Essen, D.C. & Kennedy, H. (2012). A weighted and directed interareal connectivity matrix for macaque cerebral cortex. Cerebral Cortex, in press [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhs270.Google ScholarPubMed
Rees, G., Kreiman, G. & Koch, C. (2002). Neural correlates of consciousness in humans. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 3, 261270.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shadlen, M.N. & Movshon, J.A. (1999). Synchrony unbound: A critical evaluation of the temporal binding hypothesis. Neuron 24, 6777.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shadlen, M.N. & Newsome, W.T. (1998). The variable discharge of cortical neurons: Implications for connectivity, computation, and information coding. The Journal of Neuroscience 18, 38703896.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Teller, D.Y. (1980). Locus questions in visual science. In Visual Coding and Adaptability, ed. Harris, C.S., pp. 151176. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Teller, D.Y. (1984). Linking propositions in visual science. Vision Research 10, 12331246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teller, D.Y. & Pugh, E.N. Jr. (1983). Linking propositions in color vision. In Colour Vision: Physiology and Psychophysics, ed. Mollon, J.D. & Sharpe, L.T., pp. 577589. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Vezoli, J., Falchier, A., Jouve, B., Knoblauch, K., Young, M. & Kennedy, H. (2004). Quantitative analysis of connectivity in the visual cortex: Extracting function from structure. Neuroscientist 10, 476482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
von der Malsburg, C. (1981). The correlation theory of brain function. Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Internal Report 81–2. Reprinted inModels of Neural Networks II, ed. Domany, E., van Hemmen, J.L. & Schulten, K.Berlin, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
Weiss, Y., Simoncelli, E.P. & Adelson, E.H. (2002). Motion illusions as optimal percepts. Nature Neuroscience 5, 598604.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yuille, A.L. & Bülthoff, H.H. (1996). Bayesian decision theory and psychophysics. In Perception and Bayesian Inference, ed. Knill, D.C. & Richards, W., pp. 123161. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 50 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Three comments on Teller’s “bridge locus”
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Three comments on Teller’s “bridge locus”
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Three comments on Teller’s “bridge locus”
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *