Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-28jzs Total loading time: 0.206 Render date: 2021-02-28T04:49:26.523Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Article contents

The criminal statistics of nineteenth-century cities: a new approach

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 February 2009

Extract

In the last decade an area of urban history receiving increasing attention has been that of crime and, in particular, nineteenth-century crime. For those social scientists whose main interest is the study of lower-class life the study of crime has become increasingly fashionable. However, the study of crime is the study of the whole of society and the relationship of the various classes within that society. That law-makers create law-breakers is axiomatic and the study of crime is, therefore, not just the study of criminals but also of the institutions which defined them as criminals. For too long it has been implied that studying criminals is the study of a subset of lower-class life. This is a reflection of the fact that research is largely a middle-class occupation and so researchers bring to their work their own middle-class perception of society. The result is the automatic acceptance that crime consists purely of larceny, burglary, assault, rape and murder while overlooking the middle-class crimes of fraud, embezzlement, tax evasion, offences against the Companies Acts, Consumer Protection Acts and Factory Acts.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1986

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

1 Monkkonen, E., ‘The quantitative historical study of crime and criminal justice’ in Inciardi, J. A. and Faupel, C. E. (eds), History and Crime: Implications for Criminal Justice Policy (1980).Google Scholar

2 Storch, R. D., ‘The plague of blue locusts: police reform and popular resistance in northern England, 1840–57’, International Rev. Social History, XX (1975)Google Scholar; Miller, , ‘The policeman as domestic missionary: urban discipline and popular culture in northern England, 1850–80’, J. Social History, IX, 4 (1976)Google Scholar; Emsley, C., Policing and its Context, 1750–1870 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Steedman, C., Policing the Victorian Community: The Formation of English Provincial Police Forces, 1856–80 (1984).Google Scholar

3 Carpenter, M., Reformatory Schools (1851), 45.Google Scholar

4 Evidence of F. Hill, Prisoner Inspector, to SC of House of Lords on the Criminal Law.

5 Hammick, J. T., J. Statistical Soc., XXX (1867), 375425.Google Scholar

6 Letter from Wandsworth division to the Police Commissioner, 10 Aug. 1863, PRO MePo 3/35.

7 Lloyd-Baker, T. B., J. Statistical Soc, XXIII, (1860), 427.Google Scholar

8 Reported in J. Statistical Soc., XXXI (09 1865), 350.Google Scholar

9 Fowler, R., letter to Manchester Guardian, 12 02 1866.Google Scholar

10 Criminal and Miscellaneous Statistical Returns of the Manchester Police for year ended 29 September 1866, Manchester Local History Library 352.2 ML.

11 Clay, W. L., Prison Chaplain (1861).Google Scholar

12 Under the Youthful Offenders Act of 1854 magistrates were empowered to send children under sixteen years of age to a reformatory for a period of between two and five years.

13 Set up by the Habitual Criminals Act of 1869 which was annulled and partially reenacted by the Prevention of Crimes Act of 1871. The Register showed offence, sentence, name and aliases.

14 For example, larceny of goods worth more than five shillings following the Criminal Justice Act of 1855.

15 Morrison, W. D., ‘The increase of crime’, Nineteenth Century, XXXI (1892), 950–7.Google Scholar

16 Hammick, op. cit., 394.

17 Jones, H., Crime in a Changing Society (1971), 18.Google Scholar

18 Clay, J., ‘On the relationship between crime, popular instruction, attendance on religious worship and beer-houses’, J. Statistical Soc., XX (1857), 22.Google Scholar

19 Carpenter, M., Juvenile Delinquents (1853).Google Scholar

20 Andreski, S., Social Sciences as Sorcery (1972), 142.Google Scholar

21 Wootton, Baroness, Social Science and Social Pathology (1959), 25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

22 Andreski, op. cit., 123.

23 Tobias, J. J., Crime and Industrial Society (1967), 21, 255.Google Scholar

24 Private correspondence, Royal Statistical Soc. to author, 24 Sept. 1981.

25 For example, Zehr, H., Crime and the Development of Modern Society: Patterns of Criminality in Nineteenth-Century Germany and France (1976)Google Scholar; Philips, D., Crime and Authority in Victorian England: The Black Country 1835–60 (1977).Google Scholar

26 Andreski, op. cit., 136.

27 Rilke, R. M., Mault Laurids Brigge, trans., Leishan, J. B. (1950).Google Scholar

28 Gatrell, V. A. C. and Hadden, T. B., ‘Criminal statistics and their interpretation’, in Wrigley, E. A. (ed.), Nineteenth-Century Society: Essays in the Use of Quantitative Methods for the Study of Social Data (1972), 339, 340, 361.Google Scholar

29 Gatrell, V. A. C., ‘Theft and violence in England, 1834–1914’, in Gatrell, V. A. C., Lenman, B. and Parker, G., (eds) Crime and the Law: A Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500 (1980), 240, 243, 248.Google Scholar

30 Zehr, op. cit., 14, 15.

31 Philips, op. cit., 45.

32 Cicourel, A. and Kitsuse, J. I., ‘A note on the uses of official statistics’, Social Problems, II (Autumn 1963), 131–9.Google Scholar

33 McClintock, F. H. and Avison, N., Crime in England and Wales (1968), 612.Google Scholar

34 Pratt, M., Mugging as a Social Problem (1980), 69, 71.Google Scholar

35 ‘Causes of the increase of crime’, Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine, LVI (1844).Google Scholar

36 Criminal Registrar's Report (1899), 36–7.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 179 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 28th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The criminal statistics of nineteenth-century cities: a new approach
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The criminal statistics of nineteenth-century cities: a new approach
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The criminal statistics of nineteenth-century cities: a new approach
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *