In order to investigate a possible association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and twinning, information on 1 096 330 single births and 12 342 twin births in 1983–95 was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry (MBR). All odds ratios (OR) were estimated after stratification for year of birth and maternal age, parity, and educational level. Smoking women, compared with non-smoking women, were at increased risk of having dizygotic (DZ) twins, but the risk increase was only evident among multiparas. A strong association between previous involuntary childlessness and dizygotic (DZ) twinning (especially in primiparas) was found. The strongest association between maternal smoking and DZ twinning was found among multiparas without any history of involuntary childlessness (OR: 1.35, 95%CI:1.22–1.49), whereas among women who had experienced involuntary childlessness, the opposite was seen (OR: 0.82, 95%CI:0.66–1.00, no difference between parity strata). Weinberg's differential method was used to estimate the number of monozygotic (MZ) twins, and a method of estimating stratified ORs among mothers of MZ twins was presented. No association was found between MZ twinning and maternal smoking (OR: 0.96, 95%CI:0.86–1.07), and no confounding by parity or previous involuntary childlessness was indicated. Several non-causal explanations to the positive association between DZ twinning and maternal smoking among multiparas were discussed, but homogeneity over strata indicated that maternal smoking may be a true risk factor for double ovulation.