Skip to main content Accessibility help

TwinsMX: Uncovering the Basis of Health and Disease in the Mexican Population

  • Ana V. Leon-Apodaca (a1), Enrique Chiu-Han (a2), Ivett Ortega-Mora (a3), Talía V. Román-López (a3), Ulises Caballero-Sánchez (a3), Oscar Aldana-Assad (a1), Adrián I. Campos (a4) (a5), Gabriel Cuellar-Partida (a6), Alejandra E. Ruiz-Contreras (a3), Sarael Alcauter (a2), Miguel E. Rentería (a4) (a5) and Alejandra Medina-Rivera (a1)...


TwinsMX is a national twin registry in Mexico recently created with institutional support from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It aims to serve as a platform to advance epidemiological and genetic research in the country and to disentangle the genetic and environmental contributions to health and disease in the admixed Mexican population. Here, we describe our recruitment and data collection strategies and discuss both the progress to date and future directions. More information about the registry is available on our website: (content in Spanish).


Corresponding author

Authors for correspondence: Alejandra Medina-Rivera, Email: and Miguel E. Rentería, Email:


Hide All

These authors contributed equally to this work.

These authors jointly led and supervised the project.



Hide All
Adamson, S., & Douglas Sellman, J. (2003). A prototype screening instrument for cannabis use disorder: The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT) in an alcohol-dependent clinical sample. Drug and Alcohol Review, 22, 309315.
Alcauter, S., García-Mondragón, L., Gracia-Tabuenca, Z., Moreno, M. B., Ortiz, J. J., & Barrios, F. A. (2017). Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior striatum and prefrontal cortex predicts reading performance in school-age children. Brain and Language, 174, 94102.
Babor, T. F., Delafuente, J. R., & Saunders, J. (1992). AUDIT: The alcohol use disorders identification test: Guidelines for use in primary health care. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Bjerregaard-Andersen, M., Gomes, M. A., Joaquím, L. C., Rodrigues, A., Jensen, D. M., Christensen, K., … Sodemann, M. (2013). Establishing a twin registry in Guinea-Bissau. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 179184.
Boyle, G. J., Matthews, G., & Saklofske, D. H. (2008). The Sage handbook of personality theory and assessment: Personality theories and models. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Bustamante, C. D., Burchard, E. G., & De la Vega, F. M. (2011). Genomics for the world. Nature, 475, 163165.
Cavia, S. (2016). 19 Escalas de evaluación psicológica. Retrieved October 2018 from
Dunn, E. C., Sofer, T., Gallo, L. C., Gogarten, S. M., Kerr, K. F., Chen, C.-Y., … Smoller, J. W. (2017). Genome-wide association study of generalized anxiety symptoms in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 174, 132143.
Eriksen, B. A., & Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143149.
Fadanelli, M. del P. B. (2014). Actitud hacia la ingesta y peso corporal. Acta Médica Grupo Ángeles, 12, 181188.
Ferreira, P. H., Oliveira, V. C., Junqueira, D. R., Cisneros, L. C., Ferreira, L. C., Murphy, K., … Teixeira-Salmela, L. F. (2016). The Brazilian twin registry. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 19, 687691.
Gao, W., Elton, A., Zhu, H., Alcauter, S., Smith, J. K., Gilmore, J. H., & Lin, W. (2014). Intersubject variability of and genetic effects on the brain’s functional connectivity during infancy. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 1128811296.
Garcia, B. (n.d.). 19 Escalas de Evaluacion Psicologica. Retrieved October 14, 2019 from
Gonzalez, S., Gupta, J., Villa, E., Mallawaarachchi, I., Rodriguez, M., Ramirez, M., … Escamilla, M. (2016). Replication of genome-wide association study (GWAS) susceptibility loci in a Latino bipolar disorder cohort. Bipolar Disorders, 18, 520527.
Gracia-Tabuenca, Z., Moreno, M. B., Barrios, F. A., & Alcauter, S. (2018). Hemispheric asymmetry and homotopy of resting state functional connectivity correlate with visuospatial abilities in school-age children. NeuroImage, 174, 441448.
Harvey, L. A. (2018). REDCap: Web-based software for all types of data storage and collection. Spinal Cord, 56, 625.
Heatherton, T. F., Kozlowski, L. T., Frecker, R. C., & Fagerström, K. O. (1991). The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: A revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 11191127.
Hur, Y.-M., & Craig, J. M. (2013). Twin registries worldwide: An important resource for scientific research. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 112.
Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). (2015). Población. Retrieved October 14, 2019 from
Jansen, A. G., Mous, S. E., White, T., Posthuma, D., & Polderman, T. J. C. (2015). What twin studies tell us about the heritability of brain development, morphology, and function: A review. Neuropsychology Review, 25, 2746.
Jiménez-Genchi, A., Monteverde-Maldonado, E., Nenclares-Portocarrero, A., Esquivel-Adame, G., & de la Vega-Pacheco, A. (2008). Confiabilidad y análisis factorial de la versión en español del índice de calidad de sueño de Pittsburgh en pacientes psiquiátricos. Gaceta Medica de Mexico, 144, 491496.
Marcheco-Teruel, B., Cobas-Ruiz, M., Cabrera-Cruz, N., Lantigua-Cruz, A., García-Castillo, E., Lardoeyt-Ferrer, R., … Valdés-Sosa, M. (2013). The Cuban twin registry: Initial findings and perspectives. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 98103.
Martin, A. R., Kanai, M., Kamatani, Y., Okada, Y., Neale, B. M., & Daly, M. J. (2019). Clinical use of current polygenic risk scores may exacerbate health disparities. Nature Genetics, 51, 584591.
Martín-Carbonell, M., Riquelme-Marín, A., Ortigosa-Quiles, J., Meda-Lara, R., Cerquera-Córdova, A., Enríquez-Santos, J., & Pérez-Díaz, R. (2012). Utilidad del Inventario de Depresión Rasgo-Estado (IDERE) para el diagnóstico clínico. Un estudio con muestras de 4 países iberoamericanos. Anales de Psicología, 28, 763771.
Mills, M. C., & Rahal, C. (2019). A scientometric review of genome-wide association studies. Communications Biology, 2, Article no. 9.
Moreno-Estrada, A., Gignoux, C. R., Fernández-López, J. C., Zakharia, F., Sikora, M., Contreras, A. V., Bustamante, C. D. (2014). Human genetics. The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits. Science, 344, 12801285.
Muris, P., Meesters, C., de Kanter, E., & Timmerman, P. E. (2005). Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: Relationships with Eysenck’s personality traits and psychopathological symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 831841.
National Institute of Statistics and Geography. (2017). Birth characteristics [Press release]. Aguascalientes, Mexico: Author.
Need, A. C., & Goldstein, D. B. (2009). Next generation disparities in human genomics: Concerns and remedies. Trends in Genetics, 25, 489494.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97113.
Ordoñana, J. R., Rebollo-Mesa, I., Carrillo, E., Colodro-Conde, L., García-Palomo, F. J., González-Javier, F., … Pérez-Riquelme, F. (2013). The Murcia twin registry: A population-based registry of adult multiples in Spain. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 302306.
Otowa, T., Hek, K., Lee, M., Byrne, E. M., Mirza, S. S., Nivard, M. G., … Hettema, J. M. (2016). Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of anxiety disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 21, 13911399.
Peterson, R. E., Kuchenbaecker, K., Walters, R. K., Chen, C.-Y., Popejoy, A. B., Periyasamy, S., … Duncan, L. E. (2019). Genome-wide association studies in ancestrally diverse populations: Opportunities, methods, pitfalls, and recommendations. Cell, 179, 589603.
Popejoy, A. B., & Fullerton, S. M. (2016). Genomics is failing on diversity. Nature, 538, 161164.
Rentería, M. E., Hansell, N. K., Strike, L. T., McMahon, K. L., de Zubicaray, G. I., Hickie, I. B., … Wright, M. J. (2014). Genetic architecture of subcortical brain regions: Common and region-specific genetic contributions. Genes, Brain, and Behavior, 13, 821830.
Ruiz-Contreras, A. E., Soria-Rodríguez, G., Almeida-Rosas, G. A., García-Vaca, P. A., Delgado-Herrera, M., Méndez-Díaz, M., & Prospéro-García, O. (2012). Low diversity and low frequency of participation in leisure activities compromise working memory efficiency in young adults. Acta Psychologica, 139, 9196.
Wojcik, G. L., Graff, M., Nishimura, K. K., Tao, R., Haessler, J., Gignoux, C. R., … Carlson, C. S. (2019). Genetic analyses of diverse populations improves discovery for complex traits. Nature, 570, 514518.
World Health Organization. (2005). Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Geneva: Author. Retrieved October 19, 2019 from
Wright, A. (2016). REDCap: A tool for the electronic capture of research data. Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, 13, 197201.
Zúniga, M. A., Carrillo-Jiménez, G. T., Fos, P. J., Gandek, B., & Medina-Moreno, M. R. (1999). Evaluación del estado de salud con la Encuesta SF-36: resultados preliminares en México. Salud Pública de México, 41, 110118.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

TwinsMX: Uncovering the Basis of Health and Disease in the Mexican Population

  • Ana V. Leon-Apodaca (a1), Enrique Chiu-Han (a2), Ivett Ortega-Mora (a3), Talía V. Román-López (a3), Ulises Caballero-Sánchez (a3), Oscar Aldana-Assad (a1), Adrián I. Campos (a4) (a5), Gabriel Cuellar-Partida (a6), Alejandra E. Ruiz-Contreras (a3), Sarael Alcauter (a2), Miguel E. Rentería (a4) (a5) and Alejandra Medina-Rivera (a1)...


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.