Aaltonen, S., Ortega-Alonso, A., Kujala, U. M., & Kaprio, J. (2010). A longitudinal study on genetic and environmental influences on leisure time physical activity in the Finnish Twin Cohort. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 13, 475–481.
Antunes, A. M., Maia, J. A., Stasinopoulos, M. D., Gouveia, E. R., Thomis, M. A., Lefevre, J. A., . . . Freitas, D. L. (2015). Gross motor coordination and weight status of Portuguese children aged 6–14 years. American Journal of Human Biology, 27, 681–689.
Baecke, J. A., Burema, J., & Frijters, J. E. (1982). A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 36, 936–942.
Barnett, I., Guell, C., & Ogilvie, D. (2013). How do couples influence each other's physical activity behaviours in retirement? An exploratory qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 13, 1197.
Bellavia, A., Bottai, M., Wolk, A., & Orsini, N. (2013). Physical activity and mortality in a prospective cohort of middle-aged and elderly men — A time perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 94.
Beunen, G., & Thomis, M. (1999). Genetic determinants of sports participation and daily physical activity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 23, S55–S63.
Bochud, M. (2017). Estimating heritability from nuclear family and pedigree data. In Elston, R. C. (Ed.), Statistical human genetics. Methods and protocols (2nd ed., pp. 195–210). New York, NY: Humana Press.
Bouchard, C., & Hoffman, E. P. (Eds.) (2011). Genetic and molecular aspects of sports performance. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Butte, N. F., Cai, G., Cole, S. A., & Comuzzie, A. G. (2006). Viva la familia study: Genetic and environmental contributions to childhood obesity and its comorbidities in the Hispanic population. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 646–654.
Choh, A. C., Demerath, E. W., Lee, M., Williams, K. D., Towne, B., Siervogel, R. M., . . . Czerwinski, S. A. (2009). Genetic analysis of self-reported physical activity and adiposity: The southwest Ohio family study. Public Health Nutrition, 12, 1052–1060.
Chung, S. J., Ersig, A. L., & McCarthy, A. M. (2017). The influence of peers on diet and exercise among adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 36, 44–56.
Clarke, P. M., Walter, S. J., Hayen, A., Mallon, W. J., Heijmans, J., & Studdert, D. M. (2012). Survival of the fittest: Retrospective cohort study of the longevity of Olympic medallists in the modern era. BMJ, 345, e8308.
Coate, D., & Sun, R. (2013). Survival estimates for elite male and female Olympic athletes and tennis championship competitors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 23, 722–727.
Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ, 320, 1240–1243.
D'Haese, S., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., De Meester, F., & Van Dyck, D. (2016). Changes in individual and social environmental characteristics in relation to changes in physical activity: A longitudinal study from primary to secondary school. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 539–552.
de Geus, E. J. C., Bartels, M., Kaprio, J., Lightfoot, J. T., & Thomis, M. (2014). Genetics of regular exercise and sedentary behaviors. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 17, 262–271.
De Moor, M. H., Willemsen, G., Rebollo-Mesa, I., Stubbe, J. H., De Geus, E. J., & Boomsma, D. I. (2011). Exercise participation in adolescents and their parents: Evidence for genetic and generation specific environmental effects. Behavior Genetics, 41, 211–222.
de Vilhena e Santos, D. M., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Seabra, A. F., & Maia, J. A. (2012). Genetics of physical activity and physical inactivity in humans. Behavior Genetics, 42, 559–578.
Dumith, S. C., Gigante, D. P., Domingues, M. R., & Kohl, H. W. 3rd (2011). Physical activity change during adolescence: A systematic review and a pooled analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40, 685–698.
Elston, R. C., George, V. T., & Severtson, F. (1992). The Elston-Stewart algorithm for continuous genotypes and environmental factors. Human Heredity, 42, 16–27.
Eriksson, M., Rasmussen, F., & Tynelius, P. (2006). Genetic factors in physical activity and the equal environment assumption — The Swedish Young Male Twins Study. Behavior Genetics, 36, 238–247.
Falba, T. A., & Sindelar, J. L. (2008). Spousal concordance in health behavior change. Health Services Research, 43, 96–116.
Geidne, S., Quennerstedt, M., & Eriksson, C. (2013). The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 41, 269–283.
Good, D. J., Coyle, C. A., & Fox, D. L. (2008). Nhlh2: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor controlling physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 36, 187–192.
Horimoto, A. R., Giolo, S. R., Oliveira, C. M., Alvim, R. O., Soler, J. P., de Andrade, M., . . . Pereira, A. C. (2011). Heritability of physical activity traits in Brazilian families: The Baependi heart study. BMC Medical Genetics, 12, 155.
Huppertz, C., Bartels, M., de Zeeuw, E. L., van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M., Hudziak, J. J., Willemsen, G., . . . de Geus, E. J. C. (2016). Individual differences in exercise behavior: Stability and change in genetic and environmental determinants from age 7 to 18. Behavior Genetics, 46, 665–679.
Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (2001). National classification of occupations (2nd ed.). Lisboa: IEFP.
Jacobi, D., Caille, A., Borys, J. M., Lommez, A., Couet, C., Charles, M. A., . . . FLVS Study Group. (2011). Parent-offspring correlations in pedometer-assessed physical activity. PLoS One, 6, e29195.
Jago, R., Macdonald-Wallis, C., Solomon-Moore, E., Thompson, J. L., Lawlor, D. A., & Sebire, S. J. (2017). Associations between participation in organised physical activity in the school or community outside school hours and neighbourhood play with child physical activity and sedentary time: A cross-sectional analysis of primary school-aged children from the UK. BMJ Open, 7, e017588.
Joosen, A. M., Gielen, M., Vlietinck, R., & Westerterp, K. R. (2005). Genetic analysis of physical activity in twins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 82, 1253–1259.
Katzmarzyk, P. T., & Malina, R. M. (1998). Contribution of organized sports participation to estimated daily energy expenditure in youth. Pediatric and Exercise Science, 10, 378–386.
Keen, K. J., & Elston, R. C. (2003). Robust asymptotic sampling theory for correlations in pedigrees. Statistics in Medicine, 22, 3229–3247.
Koopmans, J. R., Lorenzo, J. O. V. D., & Boomsma, D. I. (1994). Smoking and sports participation. In Goldbout, U., Faire, U., & Berg, K. (Eds.), Factors in coronary heart disease (pp. 217–235). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
Lightfoot, J. T. (2011). Current understanding of the genetic basis for physical activity. Journal of Nutrition, 141, 526–530.
Lightfoot, J. T., De Geus, E. J. C., Booth, F. W., Bray, M. S., den Hoed, M., Kaprio, J., . . . Bouchard, C. (2017). Biological/genetic regulation of physical activity level: Consensus from GenBioPAC. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 50, 863–873.
Lin, X., Eaton, C. B., Manson, J. E., & Liu, S. (2017). The genetics of physical activity. Current Cardiology Reports, 19, 119.
Lohman, T., Roche, A., & Martorell, R. (1988). Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books.
Maia, J., Gomes, T. N., Tregouet, D. A., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2014). Familial resemblance of physical activity levels in the Portuguese population. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17, 381–386.
Maia, J., Thomis, M., & Beunen, G. (2002). Genetic factors in physical activity levels: A twin study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 87–91.
Maitland, C., Stratton, G., Foster, S., Braham, R., & Rosenberg, M. (2013). A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10, 99.
Mathew, G., Song, Y., & Elston, R. (2011). Interval estimation of familial correlations from pedigrees. Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology, 10, Article 11, 1–29.
Miller, D. J., Freedson, P. S., & Kline, G. M. (1994). Comparison of activity levels using the Caltrac® accelerometer and five questionnaires. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26, 376–382.
Mitchell, B. D., Rainwater, D. L., Hsueh, W. C., Kennedy, A. J., Stern, M. P., & Maccluer, J. W. (2003). Familial aggregation of nutrient intake and physical activity: Results from the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 13, 128–135.
Mustelin, L., Joutsi, J., Latvala, A., Pietilainen, K. H., Rissanen, A., & Kaprio, J. (2012). Genetic influences on physical activity in young adults: A twin study. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44, 1293–1301.
Patience, M. A., Kilpatrick, M. W., Sun, H., Flory, S. B., & Watterson, T. A. (2013). Sports game play: A comparison of moderate to vigorous physical activities in adolescents. Journal of School Health, 83, 818–823.
Pereira, M. A., FitzerGerald, S. J., Gregg, E. W., Joswiak, M. L., Ryan, W. J., Suminski, R. R., . . . Zmuda, J. M. (1997). A collection of physical activity questionnaires for health-related research. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 29, S1–S205.
Pereira, S., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Gomes, T. N., Souza, M., Chaves, R. N., Santos, F. K., . . . Maia, J. A. (2018). Resemblance in physical activity levels: The Portuguese sibling study on growth, fitness, lifestyle, and health. American Journal of Human Biology, 30, e23061.
Pereira, S., Todd Katzmarzyk, P., Gomes, T. N., Souza, M., Chaves, R. N., Dos Santos, F. K., . . . Maia, J. A. (2017). A multilevel analysis of health-related physical fitness. The Portuguese sibling study on growth, fitness, lifestyle and health. PLoS One, 12, e0172013.
Perusse, L., Tremblay, A., Leblanc, C., & Bouchard, C. (1989). Genetic and environmental influences on level of habitual physical activity and exercise participation. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 1012–1022.
Philippaerts, R. M., Westerterp, K. R., & Lefevre, J. (1999). Doubly labelled water validation of three physical activity questionnaires. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 20, 284–289.
Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2018). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.
Rosa, M. J. V., & Chitas, P. (2010). Portugal: Os números. Lisboa: Relógio D’Água Editores.
Sallis, J. F. (2000). Age-related decline in physical activity: A synthesis of human and animal studies. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32, 1598–1600.
Santos, D. M., Katzmarzyk, P. T., Diego, V. P., Blangero, J., Souza, M. C., Freitas, D. L., . . . Maia, J. A. (2014). Genotype by sex and genotype by age interactions with sedentary behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study. PLoS One, 9, e110025.
Seabra, A. F., Mendonca, D. M., Goring, H. H., Thomis, M. A., & Maia, J. A. (2008). Genetic and environmental factors in familial clustering in physical activity. European Journal of Epidemiology, 23, 205–211.
Seabra, A. F., Mendonca, D. M., Thomis, M. A., Malina, R. M., & Maia, J. A. (2007). Sports participation among Portuguese youth 10 to 18 years. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 4, 370–380.
Silva, D. R., Fernandes, R. A., Ohara, D., Collings, P. J., Souza, M. F., Tomeleri, C. M., . . . Cyrino, E. S. (2016). Correlates of sports practice, occupational and leisure-time physical activity in Brazilian adolescents. American Journal of Human Biology, 28, 112–117.
Simonen, R. L., Perusse, L., Rankinen, T., Rice, T., Rao, D. C., & Bouchard, C. (2002). Familial aggregation of physical activity levels in the Quebec Family Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 1137–1142.
Stubbe, J. H., Boomsma, D. I., & De Geus, E. J. (2005). Sports participation during adolescence: A shift from environmental to genetic factors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37, 563–570.
Sullivan, S. M., Broyles, S. T., Barreira, T. V., Chaput, J. P., Fogelholm, M., Hu, G., . . . ISCOLE Research Group. (2017). Associations of neighborhood social environment attributes and physical activity among 9–11 year old children from 12 countries. Health Place, 46, 183–191.
Teixeira, P. J., Carraça, E. V., Markland, D., Silva, M. N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 78.
van der Aa, N., De Geus, E. J. C., van Beijsterveldt, T. C. E. M., Boomsma, D. I., & Bartels, M. (2010). Genetic influences on individual differences in exercise behavior during adolescence. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2010, 1–8.
Van Der Horst, K., Paw, M. J., Twisk, J. W., & Van Mechelen, W. (2007). A brief review on correlates of physical activity and sedentariness in youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39, 1241–1250.
Wendel-Vos, W., Droomers, M., Kremers, S., Brug, J., & van Lenthe, F. (2007). Potential environmental determinants of physical activity in adults: A systematic review. Obesity Reviews, 8, 425–440.
World Health Organization. (2000). Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
Yao, F., Walker, P. D., & MacKenzie, R. G. (2013). A Tet-on system for DRD1-expressing cells. PLoS One, 8, e72681.
Yates, L. B., Djousse, L., Kurth, T., Buring, J. E., & Gaziano, J. M. (2008). Exceptional longevity in men: Modifiable factors associated with survival and function to age 90 years. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168, 284–290.