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Environmental and Genetic Contributions to Indicators of Oral Malodor in Twins

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 February 2012

Walter A. Bretz
Affiliation:
New York University, College of Dentistry, United States of America
Aaron Biesbrock
Affiliation:
Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, United States of America
Patricia M. Corby
Affiliation:
New York University, College of Dentistry, United States of America
Andrea L. Corby
Affiliation:
Twins Institute for Genetics Research, Montes Claros, Brazil
Walter G. Bretz*
Affiliation:
Twins Institute for Genetics Research, Montes Claros, Brazil
Jennifer Wessel
Affiliation:
Indiana University, Indianapolis, United States of America
Nicholas J. Schork
Affiliation:
Scripps Genomic Medicine and The Scripps Research Institute, San Diego, United States of America
*
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE: Walter A. Bretz, New York University College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, Room 1005, New York, NY, 10010, USA. E-mail: wb36@nyu.edu

Abstract

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This study aimed to: (1) determine concordance rates of self-reported and subjectively determined indicators of oral malodor in twins; (2) determine the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to levels of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in intraoral and exhaled breath. Fifty-one twin pairs participated in the study. Measurements of VSCs were obtained by a halimeter. The presence of tongue coatings was determined and twins filled out a 32-item questionnaire on oral malodor indicators independently of one another. Estimates of heritability (h2) for halimeter measurements were computed by SOLAR. The concordance rates for the presence of tongue coating among identical and fraternal twins were 67% and 11%, respectively. In the 10 most informative items, 70% exhibited higher concordance rates for identical than for fraternal twins. Of particular interest were the differences in concordance rates for dry mouth, sinus infection and unusual sweating. The h2 for intra-oral breath was 0.28 ± 0.17 (NS), whereas the h2 for exhaled breath was 0.50 ± 0.20 (p = .0207). The concordance rates of tongue coatings and malodor indicators were higher in identical twins than in fraternal twins. Intraoral breath VSC values were primarily attributable to environmental factors, whereas exhaled breath VSC values were partially explained by genetic factors.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2011

References

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