Mutations in the thyroglobulin (TG) gene, which has an estimated incidence of approximately 1 in 100,000 new-borns, cause autosomal recessive congenital hypothyroidism. The mutational spectrum of the TG gene and the phenotype–genotype correlations have not yet fully been established. We report a compound heterozygous mutation in the TG gene in a Chinese twin family with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. We also describe the gene mutation associated with the genotype–phenotype of these children with congenital goiter and hypothyroidism. The whole coding sequence of the TG gene was analyzed by direct sequence, and the identified changes in the sequence were tested for benign polymorphism by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography screening of the mutation and sequencing 200 chromosomes from normal controls. Analysis of the TG gene of the affected twin revealed a compound heterozygous mutation, including a novel missense mutation G2687A, which is predicted to result in a glutamine to arginine substitution at codon 877, and a known nonsense mutation C7006T, predicted to result in an arginine to stop codon at codon 2317. Analysis of 200 normal chromosomes did not identify the same change in healthy subjects. This is the first report of a TG gene mutation in the Chinese Han population. Our study provides further evidence that mutations in the TG gene cause congenital goiter and hypothyroidism, demonstrates genetic heterogeneity of the mutation, and increases our understanding of phenotype–genotype correlations in congenital hypothyroidism.