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Payments for Ecosystem Services in Sustainable Mangrove Forest Management in Bangladesh

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 February 2017

Jona Razzaque
Affiliation:
Department of Law, Faculty of Business and Law, University of the West of England (UWE), Bristol (United Kingdom). Email: Jona.Razzaque@uwe.ac.uk.
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

In the context of sustainable development, both developed and developing countries are implementing policies that encourage economic growth, environmental protection and social well-being in resource decisions. According to the 2012 Rio+20 Declaration, market-based instruments that complement regulations can offer an economically efficient push to sustainable growth. Market-based instruments, such as payments for ecosystem services (PES) and other market incentives, may play a crucial role in enhancing the livelihoods and wider well-being of poor people. However, for economic tools such as PES to prove valuable in managing natural resources, the decision-making and implementation processes must integrate adequate rights allocation and participatory mechanisms. This article examines forest ecosystem services in the context of the mangrove reserve forest of the Sundarbans in Bangladesh. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world with an exceptional level of biodiversity. The article argues for a more realistic and equitable approach to PES projects in Bangladesh. It underscores the need for effective participatory tools, third-party monitoring and multi-service PES schemes to improve multiple mangrove ecosystem services in the Sundarbans.

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Articles
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© Cambridge University Press 2017 

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References

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104 Hossain & Roy, n. 72 above.

105 ADB, n. 71 above.

106 Hossain & Roy, n. 72 above.

107 Ibid., p. 8.

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111 Ibid.

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113 The World Bank, n. 110 above.

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117 New York, NY (US), 9 May 1992, in force 21 Mar. 1994, available at: http://unfccc.int.

118 The UN-REDD Programme was launched in Sept. 2008.

119 Cadman & Maraseni, n. 114 above.

120 For an example of proposed REDD in Chittagong (Bangladesh) see M.D. Danesh Miah, ‘Traditional Ecological Knowledge in the REDD Plus Strategies in Bangladesh’, The Rufford Foundation, 2011, available at: http://www.rufford.org/rsg/projects/md_danesh_miah.

121 UNDP, ‘UN-REDD Bangladesh National Programme’, available at: http://mptf.undp.org/factsheet/project/00090410.

122 UN-REDD, ‘Readiness Preparation Proposal for Bangladesh’, Apr. 2014, available at: http://fd.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/fd.portal.gov.bd/page/3743f769_c99c_4fdc_a48d_a3cfe6765545/Bangladesh%20R-PP_Final.pdf.

123 Information on other parallel projects supporting REDD+ readiness can be found in the REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal: ibid., p. 145.

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125 Collaborative REDD+ Improved Forest Management Sundarbans Project (CRISP), Project Concept Note, Feb. 2011, available at: http://www.nishorgo.org/tbltd/upload/pdf/0.84199100%201357815512_CRISP.pdf.

126 According to the FAO, sustainable forest management addresses forest degradation and deforestation while increasing direct benefits to people and the environment: FAO, ‘Sustainable Forest Management’, available at: http://www.fao.org/forestry/sfm/en.

127 UN-REDD, ‘UN Collaborative Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’, National Programme Document, May 2015, available at: http://www.unredd.net/index.php?view=download&alias=14573-bangladesh-npd-signed&category_slug=national-programme-documents-2040&option=com_docman&Itemid=134. UNDP and the Bangladesh government officially launched the UN-REDD Bangladesh National Programme.

128 USAID, ‘Integrated Resources Management Plans for the Sundarbans (2010–2020)’, available at: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnaec417.pdf.

129 Campaign for Climate Justice, ‘Carbon Trading and the Sundarbans: United States Interest Conflicts with Local People’s Rights’, Equity and Justice Working Group (Bangladesh) and Humanitywatch, Campaign Paper, Mar. 2011.

130 UN-REDD Programme, ‘Social and Environmental Principles and Criteria’, 25–26 Mar. 2012, UN Doc. UNREDD/PB8/2012/V/1.

131 E.g., REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (SES), developed by two NGOs: Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), and CARE International.

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136 Karim, n. 57 above; ADB, n. 71 above.

137 van Asselt, H., ‘REDD+ and Biodiversity’, in E. Morgera & J. Razzaque (eds), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law (Edward Elgar, 2017 in press)Google Scholar.

138 Mangroves for the Future, ‘Ecosystems across Borders: MFF at the World Parks Congress 2014’, 18 Nov. 2014, available at: http://www.mangrovesforthefuture.org/news-and-media/news/asia-region/2014/mff.

139 Mangroves for the Future, ‘Bangladesh’, available at: https://www.mangrovesforthefuture.org/countries/members/bangladesh.

141 EuropeAid, ‘Annual Work Programme for Grants of the Delegation of the European Union to Bangladesh Sundarbans Environmental and Livelihoods Security (SEALS) Project (2011)’, available at: https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/awp-bangladesh-forest-seals-2011_en.pdf; ‘Tk 128cr Project to Develop Ecosystems in Sundarbans’, Bangladesh Economic News, 15 Jan. 2011, available at: https://bangladesheconomy.wordpress.com/2011/01/15/tk-128cr-project-to-develop-ecosystems-in-sundarbans.

142 The SUNDARI Project is officially managed by Concern Worldwide; 31 community based organizations, 18 producers and collectors groups and 1,845 self-help groups have been formed with the targeted 25,000 Sundarbans Dependent Extreme Poor Households: Concern Worldwide, ‘SUNDARI: Protecting the Biodiversity of the Sundarbans by Reducing Human Pressure’, available at: https://www.concern.net/sites/default/files/media/resource/sundari_-_protecting_the_biodiversity_of_the_sundarbans_by_reducing_human_pressure.pdf.

143 The project works on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and supports the implementation of the Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan (n. 86 above). It is particularly relevant for the disaster management, capacity building and institutional strengthening pillars of that strategy: GIZ, ‘Sustainable Development and Biodiversity Conservation in Coastal Protection Forests (2010)’, Project No. 2010.2220.1 (in German), available at: https://www.giz.de/projektdaten/projects.action?request_locale=en_EN&pn=201022201.

144 Law Commission (UK), ‘Criminal Liability in Regulatory Contexts’, Consultation Paper No. 195 (2010) p. 3.

145 Skinnider, E., Victims of Environmental Crimes: Mapping the Issues (International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy, 2011), p. 20 Google Scholar.

146 Gunningham, N., ‘Environment Law, Regulation and Governance: Shifting Architectures’ (2009) 21(2) Journal of Environmental Law, pp. 179212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar, at 186.

147 According to Gunningham and Sinclair, ‘self-regulation entails social control by an industry association, whereas voluntarism is based on the individual firm undertaking to do the right thing unilaterally, without any basis in coercion’: N. Gunningham & D. Sinclair, Designing Smart Regulation (1999), pp. 1–19, at 16, available at: http://www.oecd.org/env/outreach/33947759.pdf.

148 E.g., the ADB’s role in the SBCP; Hossain & Roy, n. 72 above; ADB, n. 71 above.

149 E.g., the role of NTPC Ltd and the World Bank in the proposed Rampal Power Plant Project: BankTrack, n. 100 above; Inclusive Development International, ‘“Disaster for Us and the Planet”: How the IFC is Quietly Funding a Coal Boom – Outsourcing Development: Lifting the Veil on the World Bank Group’s Lending Through Financial Intermediaries’, Part 1, Oct. 2016, available at: http://www.inclusivedevelopment.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Outsourcing-Development-Climate.pdf.

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