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SACRED LANDSCAPES, SPIRITUAL TRAVEL: EMBODIED HOLINESS AND LONG-DISTANCE PILGRIMAGE IN THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION

  • Elizabeth Tingle (a1)

Abstract

Long regarded as a medieval tradition which declined into insignificance after Luther, pilgrimage expanded considerably from the mid-sixteenth century, until well after 1750. This paper examines long-distance journeys to shrines, rather than sacred sites themselves, to explore how landscapes travelled were perceived, experienced and used by pilgrims in the Counter-Reformation. Using theory such as phenomenology, the focus is on autobiographical accounts of pilgrimages to two case-study sites, the Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy, northern France, and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, north-west Spain, roughly between 1580 and 1750. These were shrines with origins in the early medieval period and which attracted a clientele over long distances. These pilgrimages were also in some way affected by religious conflict in the sixteenth century, whether by direct attack by Huguenots as at the Mont, or by war-time disruptions of its routes as with Compostela, as well as the theological and polemical attacks on the practice of pilgrimage itself by Protestant authors. Pilgrimage studies have examined ‘place’ – the shrine – but a focus on ‘landscape’ allows for a consideration of wider religious and cultural contexts, relations and experiences in this period of religious change.

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References

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1 Richeome, Louis, ‘Le pèlerin de Lorète’, in Les oeuvres du R. Père Richeome (2 vols., Paris, 1628), i, 215.

2 Furetière, Antoine, Dictionnaire universelle (3 vols., Paris, 1690), iii, 85; for example, Le dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise, 4th edn (2 vols., Paris, 1762), ii, 338, which was widely copied.

3 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage: Journeying into the Sacred, ed. della Dora, V., Maddrell, A., Scafi, A. and Walton, H. (2014), 1.

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5 Nelson, Eric, ‘The Parish in its Landscape: Pilgrimage Processions in the Archdeaconry of Blois, 1500–1700’, French History, 24 (2010), 320.

6 Miller, Daniel, Stuff (Cambridge, 2010), 71.

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8 Bergin, Joe, Church, Society and Religious Change in France 1580–1730 (New Haven and London, 2009), 246–8.

9 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage, ed. della Dora, Maddrell, Scafi and Walton, 5–6.

10 Reframing Pilgrimage. Cultures in Motion, ed. Coleman, Simon and Eade, John (2004), 5.

11 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage, ed. della Dora, Maddrell, Scafi and Walton, 1.

12 Reframing Pilgrimage, ed. Coleman and Eade, 1.

13 Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Sheridan, Alan (1977); Foucault, Michel, A History of Sexuality, i: An Introduction, trans. Hurley, Robert (1979).

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15 Reframing Pilgrimage, ed. Coleman and Eade, 16; see also Urry, John, Sociology beyond Societies: Mobilities for the Twenty-First Century (2000).

16 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage, ed. della Dora, Maddrell, Scafi and Walton, 7.

17 Tilley, Christopher, Interpreting Landscapes. Geologies, Topographies, Identities, Explorations in Landscape Phenomenology 3 (Walnut Creek, CA, 2010), 25.

18 Ibid., p. 25.

19 Ibid., p. 26.

20 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage, ed. della Dora, Maddrell, Scafi and Walton, 1.

21 Ibid., 6–7.

22 de Franceschi, S. Germain, D'encre et de poussière: l’écriture du pèlerinage à l’épreuve de l'intimité du manuscrit (Paris, 2010), 293.

23 Mémoires de Jacques-Auguste de Thou depuis 1553 jusqu'en 1601’, in Choix de chroniques et mémoires sur l'histoire de France, ed. Buchon, J. A. C. (Paris, 1836), 590.

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27 Laffi, Domenico, A Journey to the West. The Diary of a Seventeenth-Century Pilgrim from Bologna to Santiago to Compostela, trans. Hall, James (Leiden, 1997), 45.

28 Ibid., 94.

29 Ibid., 113.

30 de Caumont, N., Manier, G. and Bonnecaze, J., Chemins de Compostelle, Trois récits de pèlerins 1417–1726–1748, ed. Dumeige, Valérie (Paris, 2009), 175.

31 Ibid., 174.

32 Laffi, A Journey to the West, 49, 67, 69

33 Archives Départementales (AD) de la Mayenne, parish register Cuillé E dépôt 204/E7 1677, www.archinoe.fr/cg53/visualiseur/visu_etatcivil.php?id=530002805&PHPSID=a0ffbb6763ba8dfe153b5ffdfbd18ae4&w=1366&h=768.

36 AD Charente-Maritime H supplément 184 L'Hôpital Neuf de Pons; Even, Pascal, ‘L'Hôpital Neuf de Pons’, in Saint Jacques et la France, ed. Rucquoi, Adeline (Paris, 2003), 492–5.

37 AD Charente-Maritime H supplément 184 L'Hôpital Neuf de Pons.

38 AD Charente-Maritime H supplément 185 L'Hôpital Neuf de Pons.

39 Barret, P. and Gurgand, J.-N., Priez pour nous à Compostelle. La vie des pèlerins sur les chemins de Saint-Jacques (Paris, 1978), 162.

40 Manier, Guillaume, Pèlerinage d'un paysan picard à Saint-Jacques de Compostelle au commencement du XVIIIe siècle, ed. d'Houët, Baron Bonnault (Le Mesnil sur l'Estrées, repr. 2002), xvi.

41 AD Gironde H non classé Jésuites Saint-James, H 2315 (3) Privilèges, droits etc.; Cavignac, Jean, ‘Un Hôpital doublement spécialisé: l'hôpital Saint-James de Bordeaux (1564–1660)’, Actes du 97 Congrès national des sociétés savantes, Nantes, 1972, section philosophie et histoire (Paris, 1977), 199200.

42 AD Gironde H non classé Jésuites Saint-James, H 2315 (3).

43 AD Gironde H non classé Jésuites Saint-James, H 2317 Novices, Pèlerins.

44 Barret and Gurgand, Priez pour nous à Compostelle, 168.

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46 Manier, Pèlerinage d'un paysan picard, 6, 23, 34.

47 Ibid., 59, 142–4.

48 Candy, Julie, The Archaeology of Pilgrimage on the Camino de Santiago de Compostela. A Landscape Perspective, BAR International Series 1948 (Oxford, 2009), 98.

49 Georges Provost, ‘Les pèlerins accueillis à l'hôpital real de Saint-Jacques’, in Pèlerins et pèlerinages dans l'Europe moderne, ed. Boutry and Julia, 130.

50 Caumont, Manier and Bonnecaze, Chemins de Compostelle, 177.

51 Manier, Pèlerinage d'un paysan picard, 17, 43.

52 Ibid., 16, 19, 27.

53 Ibid., 43–5.

54 Caumont, Manier and Bonnecaze, Chemins de Compostelle, 175.

55 Laffi, A Journey to the West, 48.

56 Julia, Dominique, ‘Curiosité, dévotion et politica peregrinesca. Le pèlerinage de Nicola Albani, melfitain, à Saint-Jacques de Compostelle (1743–45)’, in Rendre ses vœux: les identités pèlerines dans l'Europe modern (XVIe–XVIIIe siècles), ed. Boutry, P., Favre, P.-A. and Julia, D. (Paris, 2000), 281.

57 Philippa Woodcock, pers. comm.

58 Michel de Saint-Martin, Le voyage fait au Mont Saint-Michel (en 1634) par la confrèrie de St-Pierre de Caen avec 22 ecclésiastiques et plusieurs habitants des autres paroisses, dont M. Pierrre de Rasivignan, fils ainé de M. de Chamboy, gouverneur de la ville et chasteau de Caen (Caen, 1654), 428.

59 Georges Provost, ‘Identité paysanne et “pèlerinage au long cours” dans la France des XVII – XIX siècles’, in Rendre ses vœux, ed. Boutry, Favre and Julia, 395.

60 Manier, Pèlerinage d'un paysan picard, 1.

61 Caumont, Manier and Bonnecaze, Chemins de Compostelle, 175.

62 Laffi, A Journey to the West, 142.

63 Julia, ‘Curiosité, dévotion et politica peregrinesca. Le pèlerinage de Nicola Albani’, 298.

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66 P. Woodcock, pers. comm.

67 Manier, Pèlerinage d'un paysan picard, 54, 59, 108, 112.

68 Laffi, A Journey to the West, 137.

69 Ibid., 35, 93, 126, 131.

70 Saint-Martin, Le voyage fait au Mont Saint-Michel (en 1634).

71 Julia, ‘Curiosité, dévotion et politica peregrinesca. Le pèlerinage de Nicola Albani’, 299, 301.

72 Candy, The Archaeology of Pilgrimage, 17.

73 Ibid., 22.

74 de Granada, Luis, Istruttione de’ Peregrini che vanno alla Madonna di Loreto, et ad altri luoghi Santi (Macerata, 1575); Richeome, ‘Le pèlerin de Lorète’. For discussion of other examples, see Maes, Bruno, Les livrets de pèlerinage. Imprimerie et culture dans la France moderne (Rennes, 2016).

75 Simiz, Stefano, Confréries urbaines et dévotion en Champagne (1450–1830) (Villeneuve-d'Ascq, 2002), 214–29; Froeschlé-Chopard, M.-H., Dieu pour tous et Dieu pour soi. Histoire des confréries et de leurs images à l’époque moderne (Paris, 2006).

76 Williams, Wes, Pilgrimage and Narrative in the French Renaissance (Oxford, 1998), 173.

77 Jean Mesnard, ‘La quête du pèlerin de Saint-Jacques selon Alphonse Dupront’, in Saint Jacques et la France, ed. Rucquoi, 17.

78 Barret and Gurgand, Priez pour nous à Compostelle, 115.

79 Candy, The Archaeology of Pilgrimage, 7.

80 Quatremaire, Robert, L'Histoire abbregée du Mont Saint-Michel (Paris, 1668).

81 Julia, Dominique, ‘Le pèlerinage au Mont-Saint-Michel du XVe au XVIIIe siècle’, in Culte et pèlerinages à Saint Michel en Occident. Les trois monts dédié s à l'archange, ed. Bouet, Pierre, Otranto, Giorgio and Vauchez, André (Rome, 2003), 306.

82 Collet, M., La Vie de Monsieur de Quériolet, prestre et conseiller au parlement de Rennes, ami du Père Bernard (Saint-Malo, 1680, 1771), 82.

83 Reframing Pilgrimage, ed. Coleman and Eade, 10.

84 de Granada, Luis, Le vrai chemin et adresse pour acquerir et parvenir à la grace de Dieu (Paris, 1579); Williams, Pilgrimage and Narrative, 85.

85 Williams, Pilgrimage and Narrative, 172.

86 Pamela J. Stewart and Andrew Strathern, Landscape, Memory and History. Anthropological Perspectives (2003), p. 5.

87 Nalle, S. T., God in La Mancha. Religious Reform and the People of Cuenca, 1500–1650 (Baltimore, 1992), 135.

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89 Soergel, Philip M., Wondrous in his Saints. Counter-Reformation and Propaganda in Bavaria (Berkeley, 1993), 119.

90 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage, ed. della Dora, Maddrell, Scafi and Walton, 6.

91 Candy, The Archaeology of Pilgrimage, 133.

92 Christian Pilgrimage, Landscape and Heritage, ed. della Dora, Maddrell, Scafi and Walton, 6.

93 Monumenta ignatiana: epistolae et instructions (12 vols., Madrid, 1903–11), Ep 6:523.

SACRED LANDSCAPES, SPIRITUAL TRAVEL: EMBODIED HOLINESS AND LONG-DISTANCE PILGRIMAGE IN THE CATHOLIC REFORMATION

  • Elizabeth Tingle (a1)

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