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Foraminifera in the Middle School Classroom

  • Hilary Clement Olson (a1)


Foraminifera Represent a group of marine, microscopic, shell-producing organisms belonging to the Protista. Many of these organisms are benthic (bottom-dwelling), and their distribution reflects variations in substrate and characteristics of bottom waters. Other foraminifera are planktonic (floating), giving us insight into the nature of surface water masses around the world. The integration of the study of foraminifera into the life sciences and earth sciences classroom creates an opportunity for students to exercise critical thinking skills in applying the variety of knowledge they have learned in their current curriculum. This scenario is particularly true in the middle school classroom with students at an age where they are moving between concrete learning and more abstract thinking skills. Encouraging students to think about how information learned in class pertains to foraminifera forces them to process abstract concepts and apply them to a concrete example.



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Ingle, J C. Jr. 1980. Cenozoic paleobathymetry and depositional history of selected sequences within the southern California continental borderland. Memorial to Orville L. Bandy Cushman Foundation Special Publication, 19:163195.
Olson, H. C. 1990. Early and middle Miocene foraminiferal paleoenvironments, southeastern San Joaquin basin, California., Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 20(4):289311.

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Foraminifera in the Middle School Classroom

  • Hilary Clement Olson (a1)


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