Skip to main content Accessibility help

Back-illuminated CCD for coherent soft X-ray imaging

  • G. Beutier (a1), G. van der Laan (a2) (a3), A. Marty (a1) and F. Livet (a4)


Direct-illumination CCDs find increasing use in coherent X-ray imaging due to their good spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. These CCDs offer a high quantum efficiency for soft X-rays near the 3d transition metal L edges. We compare front- and back-illuminated CCDs and describe a method to obtain images with a large dynamic range (five orders of magnitude) and high spatial resolution. Back-illuminated CCDs are resistant to radiation damage at the soft X-ray energies and provide a true 13.5 μm pixel resolution. High quality diffraction images are obtained in magnetic studies from metallic multilayer structures in reflection geometry.


Corresponding author


Hide All
[1] Livet, F., Acta Cryst. A 63, 87 (2007)
[2] Sutton, M., Mochrie, S.G.J., Greytak, T., Nagler, S.E., Berman, L.E., Held, G.E., Stephenson, G.B., Nature 352, 608 (1991)
[3] Dierker, S., Pindak, R., Fleming, R., Robinson, I., Berman, L., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 449 (1995)
[4] Mochrie, S.G.J., Mayes, A.M., Sandy, A.R., Sutton, M., Brauer, S., Stephenson, G.B., Abernathy, D.L., Grübel, G., Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1275 (1997)
[5] Livet, F., Bley, F., Caudron, R., Geissler, E., Abernathy, D., Detlefs, C, Grübel, G., Sutton, M., Phys. Rev. E 63, 036108 (2001)
[6] Miao, J., Sayre, D., Chapman, H.N., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1662 (1998)
[7] Miao, J., Charalambous, P., Kirz, J., Sayre, D., Nature 400, 342 (1999)
[8] Howells, M.R., Chapman, H., Hau-Riege, S., He, H., Marchesini, S., J. Phys. IV France 104, 557 (2003)
[9] Marchesini, S., Chapman, H.M., Hau-Riege, S.P., London, R.A., Snoke, A., He, H., Howells, M.R., Padmore, H., Rosen, R., Spence, J.H.C. et al., Opt. Exp. 11, 2344 (2003)
[10] Fienup, J.R., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 118 (1987)
[11] Weierstall, U., Chen, Q., Spence, J.C.H., Howells, M.R., Isaacson, M., Panepucci, R.R., Ultramicroscopy 90, 171 (2002)
[12] van der Laan, G., Chesnel, K., Belakhovsky, M., Marty, A., Livet, F., Collins, S.P., Dudzik, E., Haznar, A., Attané, J.P., Superlattices and Microstructures 34, 107 (2003)
[13] Roper, M.D., van der Laan, G., Dürr, H.A., Dudzik, E., Collins, S.P., Miller, M.C., Thompson, S.P., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 467-468, 1101 (2001)
[14] Chesnel, K., Belakhovsky, M., Livet, F., Collins, S.P., van der Laan, G., Dhesi, S.S., Attané, J.P., Marty, A., Phys. Rev. B 66, 172404 (2002)
[15] Eisebitt, S., Lüning, J., Schlotter, W.F., Lorgen, M., Hellwig, O., Eberhardt, W., Stöhr, J., Nature 432, 885 (2004)
[16] Sacchi, M., Spezzani, C., Carpentiero, A., Praumsciolu, M., Delaunay, R., Lüning, J., Polack, F., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043702 (2007)
[17] Pivovaroff, M., Jones, S., Bautz, M., Kissel, S., Prigozhin, G., Ricker, G., Tsunemi, H., Miyata, E., IEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS 45, 164 (1998)
[18] Tsunemi, H., Mori, K., Miyata, E., Baluta, C., Burrows, D.N., Garmire, G.P., Chartas, G., Astrophys. J. 554, 486 (2001)
[19] Holland, S.E., Groom, D.E., Palaio, N.P., Stover, R.J., Wei, M., IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 227 (2003)
[20] Tsunemi, H., Hiraga, J., Mori, K., Yoshita, K., Miyata, E., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 436, 32 (1999)
[21] Prigozhin, G.Y., Woo, J., Gregoty, J.A., Loomis, A.H., Bautz, M.W., Ricker, G., Kraft, S., Opt. Eng. 37, 2848 (1998)
[22] Holland, S., Exp. Astron. 14, 83 (2002)
[23] Kimmel, N., Hiragad, J.S., Hartmann, R., Meidingera, N., Strudera, L., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 568, 128 (2006)
[24] Bautz, M.W., Prigozhin, G.Y., Pivovaro, M.J., Jones, S.E., Kissel, S.E., Ricker, G.R., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 436, 40 (1999)
[25] Chesnel, K., Belakhovsky, M., van der Laan, G., Livet, F., Marty, A., Beutier, G., Collins, S.P., Haznar, A., Phys. Rev. B 70, 180402 (2004)
[26] Eisebitt, S., Lörgen, M., Eberhardt, W., Lüning, J., Stöhr, J., Rettner, C.T., Hellwig, O., Fullerton, E.E., Denbeaux, G., Phys. Rev. B 68, 104419 (2003)
[27] Eisebitt, S., Lörgen, M., Eberhardt, W., Lüning, J., Stöhr, J., Appl. Phys. A 80, 921 (2005)
[28] Beutier, G., van der Laan, G., Chesnel, K., Marty, A., Belakhovsky, M., Collins, S.P., Dudzik, E., Toussaint, J.C., Gilles, B., Phys. Rev. B 71, 184436 (2005)
[29] Beutier, G., Livet, F., Marty, A., van der Laan, G., Stanescu, S., Bencok, P., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093901 (2007)
[30] Livet, F., Bley, F., Mainville, J., Sutton, M., Mochrie, S.G.J., Geissler, E., Dolino, G., Abernathy, D.L., Grübel, G., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 451, 596 (2000)
[31] Dinardo1, M.E., Piazzalunga, A., Braicovich, L., Bisogni, V., Dallera, C., Giarda, K., Marcon, M., Tagliaferri, A., Ghiringhelli, G., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. 570, 176 (2007)



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed