Allen, J. P., Eckard, M. J. & Wallen, J. (1988) Screening for alcoholism: techniques and issues. Public Health Report, 103, 586–592.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: APA.
Blazer, D. G., George, L. K. & Landermau, R. (1985) Psychiatric disorders: a rural/urban comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 651–656.
Douglas, K. S. & Skeem, J. L. (2005) Violence risk assessment: getting specific about being dynamic. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 347–383.
Douglas, K. S. & Webster, C. D. (1999) The HCR-20 violence risk assessment scheme: concurrent validity in a sample of incarcerated offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 26, 3–19.
Douglas, K. S., Cox, D. N. & Webster, C. D. (1999) Violence risk assessment: science and practice. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 4, 149–184.
Elbogen, E. B., Mercado, C. C., Scalora, M. J., et al (2002) Perceived relevance of factors for violence risk assessment: a survey of clinicians. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 37–47.
Elbogen, E. B., Huss, M., Tomkins, A. J., et al (2005) Clinical decision-making about psychopathy and violence risk assessment in public sector mental health settings. Psychological Services, 2, 133–141.
Elbogen, E. B., Mustillo, S., Van Dorn, R., et al (2006) The impact of perceived need for treatment on risk of arrest and violence in severe mental illness. Criminal Justice and Behavior in press.
Endicott, J., Spitzer, R., Fleiss, J., et al (1976) The global assessment scale: a procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbances. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 766–771.
Estroff, S. E., Swanson, J. W., Lachicotte, W., et al (1998) Risk reconsidered: targets of violence in the social networks of people with serious psychiatric disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, S95–S101.
Farrington, D. & Loeber, R. (2000) Some benefits of dichotomization in psychiatric and criminological research. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 10, 100–122.
Ganju, V. (1999) The MHSIP Consumer Survey
Austin, TX: Texas Department of MHMR.
Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E. & Cormier, C. A. (2002) Prospective replication of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide in predicting violent recidivism among forensic patients. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 377–394.
Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E. & Camilleri, J. A. (2004) Applying a forensic actuarial assessment (the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide) to non forensic patients. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 1063–1074.
Heilbrun, K. (1997) Prediction versus management models relevant to risk assessment: the importance of legal decision-making context. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 347–359.
LogXact (2002) Software for Exact Logistic Regression. Cambridge, MA: Cytel Software Corporation.
Monahan, J. (2002) The Mac Arthur studies of violence risk. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 12, S67–S72.
Monahan, J. & Steadman, H. J. (eds) (1994) Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment: Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Monahan, J., Steadman, H. J., Robbins, P. C., et al (2000) Developing a clinically useful actuarial tool for assessing violence risk. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 312–319.
Monahan, J., Redlich, A. D., Swanson, J., et al (2005) Use of lever age to improve adherence to psychiatric treatment in the community. Psychiatric Services, 56, 37–44.
Moran, P., Walsh, E., Tyrer, P., et al (2003) Impact of comorbid personality disorder on violence in psychosis: report from the UK700 trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 129–134.
Nicholls, T. L., Ogloff, J. R. P. & Douglas, K. S. (2004) Assessing risk for violence among male and female civil psychiatric patients: the HCR–20, PCL: SV, and VSC. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 22, 127–158.
Norman, P., Abraham, C. & Conner, M. (eds) (2000) Understanding and Changing Health Behaviour: From Health Beliefs to Self-regulation. Amsterdam: Harwood.
Perkins, D. O. (2002) Predictors of noncompliance in patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 1121–1128.
Prochaska, J. O. & DiClemente, C. C. (1983) Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390–395.
Rao, J. & Scott, A. (1992) A simple method for the analysis of clustered binary data. Biometrics, 48, 577–585.
Ruesch, N. & Corrigan, P. W. (2002) Motivational interviewing to improve insight and treatment adherence in schizophrenia. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 26, 23–32.
Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000) Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68–78.
Skeem, J. L. & Mulvey, E. P. (2001) Psychopathy and community violence among civil psychiatric patients: results from the Mac Arthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 358–374.
StatXact (2003) Statistical Software for Exact Nonparametric Inference. Cambridge, MA: Cytel Software Corporation.
Steadman, H. J., Monahan, J., Robbins, P. C., et al (1993) From dangerousness to risk assessment: implications for appropriate research strategies. In Mental Disorder and Crime (ed. Hodgins, S.), pp 39–62. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Steadman, H. J., Mulvey, E. P., Monahan, J., et al (1998) Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 393–401.
Steadman, H. J., Silver, E., Monahan, J., et al (2000) A classification tree approach to the development of actuarial violence risk assessment tools. Law and Human Behavior, 24, 83–100.
Strand, S., Belfrage, H., Fransson, G., et al (1999) Clinical and risk management factors in risk prediction of mentally disordered off enders – more important than historical data? A retrospective study of 40 mentally disordered offenders assessed with the HCR–20 violence risk assessment scheme. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 4, 67–76.
Swanson, J. W., Holzer, C. E., Ganju, V. K., et al (1990) Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: evidence from the Epidemiological Catchment Area surveys. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 41, 761–770.
Swanson, J. W., Swartz, M. S., Estroff, S. E., et al (1998) Psychiatric impairment, social contact, and violent behavior: evidence from a study of outpatient-committed persons with severe mental disorder. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, S86–S94.
Swanson, J. W., Borum, R., Swartz, M. S., et al (1999) Violent behavior preceding hospitalization among persons with severe mental illness. Law and Human Behavior, 23, 185–204.
Swanson, J. W., Swartz, M. S. & Elbogen, E. B. (2004a) Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic medications in reducing violent behavior among persons with schizophrenia in community-based treatment. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30, 3–20.
Swanson, J. W., Swartz, M. S., Elbogen, E. B., et al (2004b) Reducing violence risk in persons with schizophrenia: olanzapine vs. risperidone. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1666–1673.
Swanson, J. W., Swartz, M. S., Van Dorn, R. A., et al (2006) A national study of violent behavior in persons with schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 490–499.
Swartz, M. S., Swanson, J. W., Hiday, V. A., et al (1998a) Violence and severe mental illness: the effects of substance abuse and non adherence to medication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 226–231.
Swartz, M. S., Swanson, J. W., Hiday, V. A., et al (1998b) Taking the wrong drugs: the role of substance abuse and medication noncompliance in violence among severely mentally ill individuals. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 33, S75–S80.
Teague, G. B., Ganju, V., Hornik, J. A., et al (1997) The MHSIP Mental Health Report Card: consumer-oriented approach to monitoring the quality of mental health plans. Evaluation Review, 21, 330–341.
Walsh, E., Moran, P., Scott, C., et al (2003) Prevalence of violent victimisation in severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 233–238.
Woerner, M. G., Mannuzza, S. & Kane, J. M. (1988) Anchoring the BPRS: an aid to improved reliability. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24, 112–117.
Zelen, M. (1971) The analysis of several 2×2 contingency tables. Biometrika, 58, 129–137.