1Hamilton, M. A rating scale for depression. Jf Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960; 23: 56–62.
2Radloff, LS. The CES-D scale: a self report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas 1977; 1: 385–401.
3Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW. The PHQ-9 validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001; 16: 606–13.
4UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Adult and Youth Literacy: National, Regional and Global trends, 1985–2015. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: UNESCO, 2013.
5Akena, D, Joska, J, Musisi, S, Stein, DJ. Sensitivity and specificity of a visual depression screening instrument among HIV-positive individuals in Uganda, an area with low literacy. AIDS Behav 2012; 16: 2399–406.
6Puertas, G, Patel, V, Marshall, T. Are visual measures of mood superior to questionnaire measures in non–Western settings? Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2004; 39: 662–6.
7Berg, A, Lönnqvist, J, Palomäki, H, Kaste, M. Assessment of depression after stroke a comparison of different screening instruments. Stroke 2008; 40: 523–9.
8Aitken, RCB. Measurement of feelings using visual analogue scales. Proc Roy Soc Med 1969; 62: 989–93.
9Kertzman, S, Aladjem, Z, Milo, R, Ben-Nahum, Z, Birger, M, Grinspan, H, et al. The utility of the visual analogue scale for the assessment of depressive mood in cognitively impaired patients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004; 19: 789–96.
10Price, CI, Curless, RH, Rodgers, H. Can stroke patients use visual analogue scales? Stroke 1999; 30: 1357–61.
11Arroll, B, Goodyear-Smith, F, Crengle, S, Gunn, J, Kerse, N, Fishman, T, et al. Validation of PHQ-2 and PHQ-9 to screen for major depression in the primary care population. Ann Fam Med 2010; 8: 348–53.
12Maurer, DM. Screening for depression. Am Fam Physician 2012; 82: 139–44.
13Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Harnett-Sheehan, K. The mini international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. J Clin Psychiatry 1998; 59: 22–33.
15Charter, RA. Sample size requirements for precise estimates of reliability, generalizability, and validity coefficients. J Clin Expe Neuropsychol 1999; 21: 559–66.
16Hobart, JC, Cano, SJ, Warner, TT, Thompson, AJ. What sample sizes for reliability and validity studies in neurology? J Neurol 2012; 259: 2681–94.
17Fenn Buderer, NM. Statistical methodology: I. Incorporating the prevalence of disease into the sample size calculation for sensitivity and specificity. Acad Emerg Med 1996; 3: 895–900.
18Nakimuli-Mpungu, E, Bass, JK, Alexandre, P, Mills, EJ, Musisi, S, Ram, M, et al. Depression, alcohol use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. AIDS Behav 2011; 15: 376–88.
19Lawshe, CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychol 1975; 28: 563–75.
21Readence, JE, Moore, DW. A meta-analytic review of the effect of adjunct pictures on reading comprehension. Psychol Sch 1981; 18: 218–24.
22Ngoh, LN, Shepherd, MD. Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon. Patient Educ Couns 1997; 3: 245–61.
23Salkind, L, Salkind, NJ. Gender and age differences in preference for works of art. Studies in Art Education 1997; 38: 246–56.
24Cela-Conde, CJ, Ayala, FJ, Munar, E, Maestú, F, Nadal, M, Capó, MA, et al. Sex-related similarities and differences in the neural correlates of beauty. PNAS 2009; 106: 3847–52.
25Houts, PS, Doak, CC, Doak, LG, Loscalzo, MJ. The role of pictures in improving health communication: a review of research on attention, comprehension, recall, and adherence. Patient Educ Couns 2006; 61: 173–90.