Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Rates of voluntary and compulsory psychiatric in-patient treatment in England: An ecological study investigating associations with deprivation and demographics

  • Patrick Keown (a1), Orla McBride (a2), Liz Twigg (a3), David Crepaz-Keay (a4), Eva Cyhlarova (a5), Helen Parsons (a6), Jan Scott (a1), Kamaldeep Bhui (a7) and Scott Weich (a8)...

Abstract

Background

Individual variables and area-level variables have been identified as explaining much of the variance in rates of compulsory in-patient treatment.

Aims

To describe rates of voluntary and compulsory psychiatric in-patient treatment in rural and urban settings in England, and to explore the associations with age, ethnicity and deprivation.

Method

Secondary analysis of 2010/11 data from the Mental Health Minimum Dataset.

Results

Areas with higher levels of deprivation had increased rates of in-patient treatment. Areas with high proportions of adults aged 20–39 years had the highest rates of compulsory in-patient treatment as well as the lowest rates of voluntary in-patient treatment. Urban settings had higher rates of compulsory in-patient treatment and ethnic density was associated with compulsory treatment in these areas. After adjusting for age, deprivation and urban/rural setting, the association between ethnicity and compulsory treatment was not statistically significant.

Conclusions

Age structure of the adult population and ethnic density along with higher levels of deprivation can account for the markedly higher rates of compulsory in-patient treatment in urban areas.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Rates of voluntary and compulsory psychiatric in-patient treatment in England: An ecological study investigating associations with deprivation and demographics
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Rates of voluntary and compulsory psychiatric in-patient treatment in England: An ecological study investigating associations with deprivation and demographics
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Rates of voluntary and compulsory psychiatric in-patient treatment in England: An ecological study investigating associations with deprivation and demographics
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Patrick Keown, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Trust & Newcastle University, Tranwell Unit, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Gateshead NE10 9RW, UK. Email: patrick.keown@newcastle.ac.uk

Footnotes

Hide All

See editorial, pp. 97–98, this issue.

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1 Dean, C, Phillips, J, Gadd, E, Joseph, M, England, S. Comparison of a community based service with a hospital based service for people with acute, severe psychiatric illness. BMJ 1993; 307: 473–6.
2 Johnson, S, Nolan, F, Pilling, S, Sandor, A, Hoult, J, McKenzie, N, et al. Randomised controlled trial of acute mental health care by a crisis resolution team: the north Islington crisis study. BMJ 2005; 331: 586–90.
3 Craig, TKJ, Garety, P, Power, P, Rahaman, N, Colbert, S, Fornells-Ambrojo, M, et al. The Lambeth Early Onset (LEO) Team: randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of specialised care for early psychosis. BMJ 2004; 329: 1067–71.
4 Glover, G, Arts, G, Babu, KS. Crisis resolution/home treatment teams and psychiatric admission rates in England. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 189: 441–5.
5 The Information Centre. Inpatients Formally Detained in Hospitals under the Mental Health Act 1983 and Other Legislation. Government Statistical Service, 2011.
6 Thompson, A, Shaw, M, Harrison, G, Ho, D, Gunnell, D, Verne, J. Patterns of hospital admission for adult psychiatric illness in England: analysis of Hospital Episode Statistics data. Br J Psychiatry 2004; 185: 334–41.
7 Audini, B, Lelliott, P. Age, gender and ethnicity of those detained under Part II of the Mental Health Act 1983. Br J Psychiatry 2002; 180: 222–6.
8 Bhui, K, Stansfield, S, Hull, S, Priebe, S, Mole, F, Feder, G. Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services in the UK. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 182: 105–16.
9 Singh, SP, Greenwood, N, White, S, Churchill, R. Ethnicity and the Mental Health Act 1983. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 191: 99105.
10 Faris, REL, Dunham, HW. Mental Disorders in Urban Areas: An Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses. Hafner, 1939.
11 Ineichen, B, Harrison, G, Morgan, HG. Psychiatric hospital admissions in Bristol. I. Geographical and ethnic factors. Br J Psychiatry 1984; 145: 600–4.
12 Kirkbride, JB, Errazuriz, A, Croudace, TJ, Morgan, C, Jackson, D, Boydell, J, et al. Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in England, 1950–2009: a systematic review and meta-analyses. PLoS One 2012; 7: e31660.
13 Van der Linden, J, Gunther, N, Feron, F, van Os, J. Children's mental health service use, neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation, and social capital. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2003; 38: 507–14.
14 Weich, S, Mcbride, O, Twigg, L, Keown, P, Cyhlarova, E, Crepaz-Keay, D, et al. Variation in compulsory psychiatric inpatient admission in England: a cross-sectional, multilevel analysis. Health Serv Deliv Res 2014; 2: 90.
15 Office for National Statistics. Primary Care Organisations Mid-Year Population Estimates, Mid 2011 (Census Based). Office for National Statistics, 2013 (http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/sape/pco-pop-est-exp/mid-2011-final–census-based-/stb—primary-care-organisation—mid-2011–census-based-.html).
16 Pateman, T. Rural and urban areas: comparing lives using rural/urban classifications. Regional Trends 2011; 43: 62–3.
17 Falzon, D. The city, its people, their health and tuberculosis. Eurosurveillance 2014; 19 (9): 23.
18 Office for National Statistics. Detailed Characteristics for England and Wales, March 2011. Office for National Statistics, 2013 (http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_310514.pdf).
19 National Online Manpower Information System. KS201EW – Ethnic Group. National Online Manpower Information System, 2011 (https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/ks201ew).
20 Keown, P, Weich, S, Bhui, K, Scott, J. Association between the provision of mental illness beds and rate of involuntary admissions in the NHS in England: ecological study 1988–2008. BMJ 2011; 343: d3736.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Rates of voluntary and compulsory psychiatric in-patient treatment in England: An ecological study investigating associations with deprivation and demographics

  • Patrick Keown (a1), Orla McBride (a2), Liz Twigg (a3), David Crepaz-Keay (a4), Eva Cyhlarova (a5), Helen Parsons (a6), Jan Scott (a1), Kamaldeep Bhui (a7) and Scott Weich (a8)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.