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Psychosocial Study of Depression in Early Pregnancy

  • Toshinori Kitamura (a1), Masumi Sugawara (a1), Kensuke Sugawara (a2), Mari Aoki Toda (a3) and Satoru Shima (a4)...



The psychosocial correlates of depression during pregnancy were explored.


Pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a general hospital (n=1329) received a set of questionnaires including Zung's Self-Rating Depression Score (SDS). SDS high scorers (>49) (the cases: n=179) were compared with low scorers (<38) (the controls; n=343).


The cases were characterised by: first delivery; more nausea, vomiting, and anorexia; more menstrual pains and premenstrual irritability; early paternal loss; lower maternal care and higher paternal overprotection; higher public self-consciousness score; more smoking and use of medication in pregnancy; unwanted pregnancy; negative psychological response to the pregnancy by the woman and husband; poor intimacy by the husband; and having remarried.


Depression in early pregnancy is determined mainly by psychosocial factors.


Corresponding author

Toshinori Kitamura, Department of Sociocultural Environmental Research, National Institute of Mental Health, NCNP, 1–7–3 Konodai, Ichikawa, 272 Japan


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Psychosocial Study of Depression in Early Pregnancy

  • Toshinori Kitamura (a1), Masumi Sugawara (a1), Kensuke Sugawara (a2), Mari Aoki Toda (a3) and Satoru Shima (a4)...
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