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Mortality in schizophrenia: Antipsychotic polypharmacy and absence of adjunctive anticholinergics over the course of a 10-year prospective study

  • John L. Waddington (a1), Hanafy A. Youssef (a2) and Anthony Kinsella (a3)



Although increased mortality is one of the most consistent and accepted epidemiological findings in schizophrenia, a high rate of suicide appears unable to account fully for this burden which remains poorly understood.


A cohort of 88 in-patients was followed prospectively over a 10-year period and predictors of survival sought among demographic, clinical and treatment variables.


Over the decade, 39 of the 88 patients (44%) died, with no instances of suicide. Reduced survival was predicted by increasing age, male gender, edentulousness and time since pre-terminal withdrawal of antipsychotics; additionally, two indices of polypharmacy predicted reduced survival: maximum number of antipsychotics given concurrently (relative risk 2.46, 95% C1 1.10-5.47; P=0.03) and absence of co-treatment with an anticholinergic (relative risk 3.33, 95% C1 0.99-11.11; P=0.05).


Receiving more than one antipsychotic concurrently was associated with reduced survival, in the face of little or no systematic evidence to justify the widespread use of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conversely, over-cautious attitudes to the use of adjunctive anticholinergics may require re-evaluation.


Corresponding author

Professor John L. Waddington, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, St Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland. Fax: 353-1-402 2453; e-mail:


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Mortality in schizophrenia: Antipsychotic polypharmacy and absence of adjunctive anticholinergics over the course of a 10-year prospective study

  • John L. Waddington (a1), Hanafy A. Youssef (a2) and Anthony Kinsella (a3)


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Mortality in schizophrenia: Antipsychotic polypharmacy and absence of adjunctive anticholinergics over the course of a 10-year prospective study

  • John L. Waddington (a1), Hanafy A. Youssef (a2) and Anthony Kinsella (a3)
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