Danner, DD, Snowdon, DA, Friesen, WV. Positive emotions in early life and longevity:
findings from the nun study. J Pers Soc
2001; 80: 804–13.
Keyes, CL, Dhingra, SS, Simoes, EJ. Change in level of positive mental health as a
predictor of future risk of mental illness. Am J
2010; 100: 2366–71.
Wood, AM, Joseph, S. The absence of positive psychological (eudemonic)
well-being as a risk factor for depression: a ten year cohort
study. J Affect Disord
2010; 122: 213–7.
Beddington, J, Cooper, CL, Field, J, Goswami, U, Huppert, FA, Jenkins, R, et al. The mental wealth of nations.
2008; 455: 1057–60.
Oswald, AJ, Wu, S. Objective confirmation of subjective measures of
human well-being: evidence from the U.S.A.
2010; 327: 576–9.
Strandberg, TE, Strandberg, AY, Pitkala, KH, Salomaa, VV, Tilvis, RS, Miettinen, TA. Cardiovascular risk in midlife and psychological
well-being among older men. Arch Intern
2006; 166: 2266–71.
Manderscheid, RW, Ryff, CD, Freeman, EJ, McKnight-Eily, LR, Dhingra, S, Strine, TW. Evolving definitions of mental illness and
wellness. Prev Chron Dis
2010; 7: A19.
Blanchflower, DG, Oswald, AJ. The U-shape without controls: a response to
Glenn. Soc Sci Med
2009; 69: 486–8.
Westerhof, GJ, Keyes, CL. Mental Illness and mental health: the two continua
model across the lifespan. J Adult Dev
2010; 17: 110–9.
Keyes, CLM. Social well-being. Soc
1998; 61: 121–40.
Lamers, SM, Westerhof, GJ, Bohlmeijer, ET, Ten Klooster, PM, Keyes, CL. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the Mental
Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). J Clin
Gallagher, MW, Lopez, SJ, Preacher, KJ. The hierarchical structure of
well-being. J Pers
2009; 77: 1025–50.
McManus, S, Meltzer, H, Brugha, T, Bebbington, P, (eds). Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007:
Results of a Household Survey. The NHS
Information Centre for Health and Social Care,
Scottish Government. Towards a Mentally Flourishing
Scotland: Policy and Action Plan 2009–2011.
Jenkinson, C, Layte, R, Jenkinson, D, Lawrence, K, Petersen, S, Paice, C, et al. A shorter form health survey: can the SF-12
replicate results from the SF-36 in longitudinal studies?
J Public Health Med
1997; 19: 179–86.
Tyrer, P, Nur, U, Crawford, M, Karlsen, S, MacLean, C, Rao, B, et al. The Social Functioning Questionnaire: a rapid
and robust measure of perceived functioning. Int
J Soc Psychiatry
2005; 51: 265–75.
Blanchflower, DG, Oswald, AJ. Is well-being U-shaped over the life
Soc Sci Med
2008; 66: 1733–49.
Singh-Manoux, A, Guéguen, A, Martikainen, P, Ferrie, J, Marmot, M, Shipley, M. Self-rated health and mortality: short- and
long-term associations in the Whitehall II study.
2007; 69: 138–43.
Dunstan, F, Weaver, N, Araya, R, Bell, T, Lannon, S, Lewis, G, et al. An observation tool to assist with the
assessment of urban residential environments. J
Lewis, G, Pelosi, AJ, Araya, R, Dunn, G. Measuring psychiatric disorder in the community: a
standardised assessment for use by lay interviewers.
1992; 22: 465–86.
Tabachnik, BG, Fidell, LS. Using Multivariate Analysis. Allyn
and Bacon, 2001.
Carmines, EG, Zeller, RA. Reliability and Validity.
Huppert, FA, Whittington, JE. Evidence for the independence of positive and
negative well-being: implications for quality of life
assessment. Br J Health Psychol
2003; 8: 107–22.
Hu, Y, Stewart-Brown, S, Twigg, L, Weich, S. Can the 12-item General Health Questionnaire be used
to measure positive mental health?
2007; 37: 1005–13.
Carstensen, LL. The influence of a sense of time on human
2006; 312: 1913–5.
Cooper, C, Bebbington, P, King, M, Jenkins, R, Farrell, M, Brugha, T, et al. Happiness across age groups: results from the
2007 National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Int J
Waterman, AS, Schwartz, SJ, Zamboangac, BL, Ravert, RD, Williams, MK, Agochae, VB, et al. The Questionnaire for Eudaemonic Well-Being:
Psychometric properties, demographic comparisons, and evidence of
validity. J Posit Psychol
Uher, R, Goodman, R. The Everyday Feeling Questionnaire: the structure
and validation of a measure of general psychological well-being and
distress. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr
2010; 45: 413–23.
Tennant, R, Hiller, L, Fishwick, R, Platt, S, Joseph, S, Weich, S, et al. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale
(WEMWBS): development and UK validation. Health
Qual Life Outcomes
2007; 5: 63.
Bech, P, Olsen, RL, Kjoller, M, Rasmussen, NK. Measuring well-being rather than the absence of
distress symptoms: a comparison of the SF-36 Mental Health subscale and
the WHO-Five Well-Being Scale. Int J Methods
Gallup, G. Human needs and satisfactions: a global
survey. Public Opin Q
1976; 40: 459–67.