da Silva, J, Gonçalves-Pereira, M, Xavier, M, Mukaetova-Ladinska, EB. Affective disorders and risk of developing dementia:
systematic review. Br J Psychiatry
2013; 202: 177–86.
Panza, F, Frisardi, V, Capurso, C, D'Introno, A, Colacicco, A, Imbimbo, B, et al.
Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and
dementia: possible continuum?
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
Geda, YE. Blowing hot and cold over depression and cognitive
2010; 75: 12–4.
Dotson, VM, Beydoun, MA, Zonderman, AB. Recurrent depressive symptoms and the incidence of
dementia and mild cognitive impairment.
Saczynski, JS, Beiser, A, Seshadri, S, Auerbach, S, Wolf, PA, Au, R. Depressive symptoms and risk of
Rutter, M, Kim-Cohen, J, Maughan, B. Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology
between childhood and adult life. J Child Psychol
2006; 47: 276–95.
Colman, I, Ploubidis, GB, Wadsworth, ME, Jones, PB, Croudace, TJ. A longitudinal typology of symptoms of depression
and anxiety over the life course. Biol
2007; 62: 1265–71.
Franz, CE, Lyons, MJ, O'Brien, R, Panizzon, MS, Kim, K, Bhat, R, et al.
A 35-year longitudinal assessment of cognition and midlife
depression symptoms: the Vietnam era twin study of aging.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2011; 19: 559–70.
Gale, CR, Batty, GD, Tynelius, P, Deary, IJ, Rasmussen, F. Intelligence in early adulthood and subsequent
hospitalisation and admission rates for the whole range of mental
disorders: longitudinal study of 1,049,663 men.
2010; 21: 70–7.
Gale, CR, Hatch, SL, Batty, G, Deary, IJ. Intelligence in childhood and risk of psychological
distress in adulthood: the 1958 National Child Development Survey and the
1970 British Cohort Study. Intelligence
2009; 37: 592–9.
Koenen, KC, Moffitt, TE, Roberts, AL, Martin, LT, Kubzansky, L, Harrington, H, et al.
Childhood IQ and adult mental disorders: a test of the
cognitive reserve hypothesis. Am J
2009; 166: 50–7.
Gale, CR, Deary, IJ, Boyle, SH, Barefoot, J, Mortensen, LH, Batty, GD. Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of
five specific psychiatric disorders in mid life: the Vietnam Experience
Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2008; 65: 1410–8.
Hatch, SL, Jones, PB, Kuh, D, Hardy, R, Wadsworth, MEJ, Richards, M. Childhood cognitive ability and adult mental health
in the British 1946 birth cohort. Soc Sci
2007; 64: 2285–96.
Richards, M, Maughan, B, Hardy, R, Hall, I, Strydom, A, Wadsworth, M. Long-term affective disorder in people with mild
learning disability. Br J Psychiatry
2001; 179: 523–7.
Martin, LT, Kubzansky, LD, Lewinn, KZ, Lipsitt, LP, Satz, P, Buka, SL. Childhood cognitive performance and risk of
generalized anxiety disorder. Int J
2007; 36: 769–75.
Smith, GE, Petersen, RC, Ivnik, RJ, Malec, JF, Tangalos, EG. Subjective memory complaints, psychological
distress, and longitudinal change in objective memory
performance. Psychol Aging
1996; 11: 272–9.
Slavin, MJ, Brodaty, H, Kochan, NA, Crawford, JD, Troller, JN, Draper, B, et al.
Prevalence and predictors of “subjective cognitive
complaints” in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2010; 18: 701–10.
Pearman, A, Storandt, M. Predictors of subjective memory in older
adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
Wadsworth, MEJ, Kuh, D, Richards, M, Hardy, R. Cohort profile: the 1946 national birth cohort (MRC
National Survey of Health and Development). Int J
Kuh, D, Pierce, M, Adams, J, Deanfield, J, Ekelund, U, Friberg, P, et al.
Updating the cohort profile for the MRC National Survey of
Health and Development: a new clinic-based data collection for ageing
research. Int J Epidemiol
Stafford, M, Black, S, Shah, I, Hardy, R, Pierce, M, Richards, M, et al.
Using a birth cohort to study ageing: representativeness and
response rates in the National Survey of Health and
Development. Eur J Ageing
2013; 10: 145–57.
Richards, M, Shipley, B, Fuhrer, R, Wadsworth, MEJ. Cognitive ability in childhood and cognitive decline
in mid-life: longitudinal birth cohort study.
2004; 328: 552–4.
Richards, M, Abbott, R. Childhood Mental Health and Adult Life Chances in Post-War
Britain: Insights from Three National Birth Cohort Studies.
Centre for Mental Health,
Wing, JK, Cooper, JE, Sartorius, N. Present State Examination.
Institute of Psychiatry,
Lindelow, M, Hardy, R, Rodgers, B. Development of a scale to measure symptoms of
anxiety and depression in the general UK population: the psychiatric
symptom frequency scale. J Epidemiol Community
1997; 51: 549–57.
Goldberg, DP, Hillier, VF. A scaled version of the General Health
Questionnaire. Psychol Med
1979; 9: 139–45.
Colman, I, Croudace, TJ, Wadsworth, MEJ, Kuh, D, Jones, PB. Psychiatric outcomes 10 years after treatment with
antidepressives or anxiolytics. Br J
2008; 193: 327–31.
British Medical Association & Royal Pharmaceutical Society of
Great Britain. British National Formulary (March
BMJ Books & Pharmaceutical Press,
Pigeon, DA. Tests used in the 1954 and 1957
surveys. In The Home and the School (Appendix
Douglas, JWB). Macgibbon & Kee,
Hatch, SL, Mishra, G, Hotopf, M, Jones, PB, Kuh, D. Appraisals of stressors and common mental disorder
from early to mid-adulthood in the 1946 British birth
cohort. J Affect Disord
Rowe, CC, Ellis, KA, Rimajovae, M, Bourgeat, P, Pike, KE, Jones, G, et al.
Amyloid imaging results from the Australian Imaging,
Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging.
2010; 31: 1275–83.
McKinnon, MC, Yucel, K, Nazarov, A, MacGueen, GM. A meta-analysis examining clinical predictors of
hippocampal volume in patients with major depressive
disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci
Arnone, D, McKie, S, Elliott, R, Juhasz, G, Thomas, EJ, Downey, D, et al.
State-dependent changes in hippocampal grey matter in
depression. Mol Psychiatry
Petersen, RC. Mild cognitive impairment. N
Engl J Med
2011; 364: 2227–34.