Adelstein, A. M. & Marmot, M. G. (1989) The health of migrants in England and Wales: causes of death. In Ethnic Factors in Health and Disease (eds Beevers, D. G. & Cruikshank, J. K.). Guildford: Wright.
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn) . Washington. DC: APA.
Andreasen, N. C., Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L. & Winokur, G. (1977) The family history method using diagnostic criteria: reliability and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1229–1235.
Eagles, J. M. (1991) The relationship between schizophrenia and immigration: are there alternatives to psychosocial hypotheses?
British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 783–789.
Griffiths, R., White, M. & Stonehouse, M. (1989) Ethnic differences in birth statistics from central Birmingham. British Medical Journal, 298, 94–95.
Harrison, G., Owens, D., Holton, A., et al (1988) A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients. Psychological Medicine, 18, 643–657.
Hutchinson, G., Takei, N., Fahy, T. A., et al (1996) Morbid risk for schizophrenia in African–Caribbean and white psychotic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 776–780.
Jones, P. B., Bebbington, P., Foerster, A., et al (1993) Premorbid social underachievement in schizophrenia: results from the Camberwell Collaborative Study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 65–71.
Lewis, S. W., Owen, M. J. & Murray, R. M. (1989) Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: methodology and mechanisms. In Schizophrenia: Scientific Progress (eds S. C. Schulz & C. A. Tamminga), pp. 56–68. New York: Oxford University Press.
McGrath, J. & Murray, R. M. (1995) Risk factors for schizophrenia: from conception to birth. In Schizophrenia (eds S. Hirsch & D. Weinberger), pp. 187–205. Oxford: Blackwell.
McGuffin, P., Farmer, A. & Harvey, I. (1991) A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness: development and reliability of the OPCRIT system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 764–770.
McNeil, T. F. (1995) Perinatal risk factors and schizophrenia: selective review and methodological concerns. Epidemiologic Review, 17, 107–112.
Nimgaonkar, V., Wessely, S. & Murray, R. M. (1988) Prevalence of familiality, obstetric complications and structural brain damage in schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 191–197.
Pan American Health Organization (1990) Health in the Americas.
Washington, DC: PAHO.
Parsons, L., MacFariane, A. & Golding, J. (1993) Pregnancy, birth and maternity care. In Race and Health in Contemporary Britain (ed. W I. U. Ahmad), pp. 51–75. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Terry, P. B., Condre, R. G., Bissenden, J. G., et al (1987) Ethnic differences in incidence of very low birthweight and neonatal deaths among normally formed infants. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 62, 709–711.
Wessely, S., Castle, D., Der, G., et al (1991) Schizophrenia and Afro-Caribbeans: a case control study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 795–801.
Wing, J., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) The Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms.
London: Cambridge University Press.