1Schuch, FB, Vancampfort, D, Firth, J, Rosenbaum, S, Ward, PB, Silva, ES, et al. Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatry 2018; 175: 631–48.
2Cooney, GM, Dwan, K, Greig, CA, Lawlor, DA, Rimer, J, Waugh, FR, et al. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 9: CD004366.
3Vancampfort, D, Firth, J, Schuch, FB, Rosenbaum, S, Mugisha, J, Hallgren, M, et al. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis. World Psychiatry 2017; 16: 308–15.
4Tremblay, MS, Aubert, S, Barnes, JD, Saunders, TJ, Carson, V, Latimer-Cheung, AE, et al. Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN) – Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2017; 14: 75.
5Young, DR, Hivert, MF, Alhassan, S, Camhi, SM, Ferguson, JF, Katzmarzyk, PT, et al. Sedentary behavior and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016; 134: E262–79.
6Dempsey, PC, Owen, N, Yates, TE, Kingwell, BA, Dunstan, DW. Sitting less and moving more: improved glycaemic control for type 2 diabetes prevention and management. Curr Diab Rep 2016; 16: 114.
7Ekelund, U, Steene-Johannessen, J, Brown, WJ, Fagerland, MW, Owen, N, Powell, KE, et al. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 2016; 388: 1302–10.
8Zhai, L, Zhang, Y, Zhang, D. Sedentary behaviour and the risk of depression: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med 2014; 49: 705–9.
9Edwards, MK, Loprinzi, PD. Effects of a sedentary behavior-inducing randomized controlled intervention on depression and mood profile in active young adults. Mayo Clin Proc 2016; 91: 984–98.
10Endrighi, R, Steptoe, A, Hamer, M. The effect of experimentally induced sedentariness on mood and psychobiological responses to mental stress. Br J Psychiatry 2016; 208: 245–51.
11Kikuchi, H, Inoue, S, Sugiyama, T, Owen, N, Oka, K, Nakaya, T, et al. Distinct associations of different sedentary behaviors with health-related attributes among older adults. Prev Med 2014; 67: 335–59.
12Schuch, F, Vancampfort, D, Firth, J, Rosenbaum, S, Ward, P, Reichert, T, et al. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord 2017; 210: 139–50.
13Hamer, M, Stamatakis, E. Prospective study of sedentary behavior, risk of depression, and cognitive impairment. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014; 46: 718–23.
14Hallgren, M, Owen, N, Stubbs, B, Zeebari, Z, Vancampfort, D, Schuch, F, et al. Passive and mentally-active sedentary behaviors and incident major depressive disorder: a 13-year cohort study. J Affect Disord 2018; 241: 579–85.
15Lagerros, YT, Hantikainen, E, Mariosa, D, Ye, WM, Adami, HO, Grotta, A, et al. Cohort profile: the Swedish National March cohort. Int J Epidemiol 2017; 46: 795.
16Lagerros, YT, Bellocco, R, Adami, HO, Nyren, O. Measures of physical activity and their correlates: the Swedish National March Cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 2009; 24: 161–9.
17Yasunaga, A, Shibata, A, Ishii, K, Koohsari, J, Oka, K. Cross-sectional associations of sedentary behaviour and physical activity on depression in Japanese older adults: an isotemporal substitution approach. BMJ Open 8: e022282.
18World Health Organization (WHO). Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health; World Health Organization Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. WHO, 2010.
19McDowell, CP, Dishman, RK, Vancampfort, D, Hallgren, M, Stubbs, B, MacDonncha, C, et al. Physical activity and generalized anxiety disorder: results from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Int J Epidemiol 2018; 47: 1443–53.
20Lagerros, YT, Mucci, LA, Bellocco, R, Nyren, O, Balter, O, Balter, KA. Validity and reliability of self-reported total energy expenditure using a novel instrument. Eur J Epidemiol 2006; 21: 227–36.
21Bellocco, R, Jia, C, Ye, W, Lagerros, YT. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 2010; 25: 777–88.
22Mekary, RA, Willett, WC, Hu, FB, Ding, EL. Isotemporal substitution paradigm for physical activity epidemiology and weight change. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 170: 519–27.
23Healy, GN, Winkler, EAH, Owen, N, Anuradha, S, Dunstan, DW. Replacing sitting time with standing or stepping: associations with cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers. Eur Heart J 2015; 36: 2643–9.
24Ryan, CG, Wellburn, S, McDonough, S, Martin, DJ, Batterham, AM. The association between displacement of sedentary time and chronic musculoskeletal pain: an isotemporal substitution analysis. Physiotherapy 2017; 103: 471–7.
25Hamer, M, Stamatakis, E. Sedentary behavior and risk of future depression and cognitive decline in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychol Health 2013; 28: 32.
26Teychenne, M, Ball, K, Salmon, J. Sedentary behavior and depression among adults: a review. Int J Behav Med 2010; 17: 246–54.
27Mekary, RA, Lucas, M, Pan, A, Okereke, OI, Willett, WC, Hu, FB, et al. Isotemporal substitution analysis for physical activity, television watching, and risk of depression. Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178: 474–83.
28Horwath, E, Johnson, J, Klerman, GL, Weissman, MM. Depressive symptoms as relative and attributable risk-factors for 1st-onset major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; 49: 817–23.
29Schuch, FB, Vancampfort, D, Firth, J, Rosenberg, S, Ward, PB, Silva, ES, et al. Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatry 2018; 175: 631–48.
30Loprinzi, PD. Objectively measured light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with lower depression levels among older US adults. Aging Ment Health 2013; 17: 801–5.
31Wheeler, MJ, Dempsey, PC, Grace, MS, Ellis, KA, Gardiner, PA, Green, DJ, et al. Sedentary behavior as a risk factor for cognitive decline? A focus on the influence of glycemic control in brain health. Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2017; 3: 291–300.
32Dishman, RK. Brain monoamines, exercise, and behavioral stress: animal models. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29: 63–74.
33Portugal, EMM, Cevada, T, Monteiro, RS, Guimaraes, TT, Rubini, ED, Lattari, E, et al. Neuroscience of exercise: from neurobiology mechanisms to mental health. Neuropsychobiology 2013; 68: 1–14.
34Moylan, S, Eyre, HA, Maes, M, Baune, BT, Jacka, FN, Berk, M. Exercising the worry away: how inflammation, oxidative and nitrogen stress mediates the beneficial effect of physical activity on anxiety disorder symptoms and behaviours. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2013; 37: 573–84.
35Hallgren, M, Helgadottir, B, Herring, MP, Zeebari, Z, Lindefors, N, Kaldo, V, et al. Exercise and internet-based cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression: multicentre randomised controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 2016; 209: 416–22.
36Helgadottir, B, Hallgren, M, Ekblom, O, Forsell, Y. Training fast or slow? Exercise for depression: a randomized controlled trial. Prev Med 2016; 91: 123–31.
37World Health Organization (WHO). Sweden Physical Activity Factsheet. World Health organization, 2014.
38Hallgren, M, Stubbs, B, Vancampfort, D, Lundin, A, Jaakallio, P, Forsell, Y. Treatment guidelines for depression: greater emphasis on physical activity is needed. Eur Psychiatry 2016; 40: 1–3.
39Richardson, CR, Faulkner, G, McDevitt, J, Skrinar, GS, Hutchinson, DS, Piette, JD. Integrating physical activity into mental health services for persons with serious mental illness. Psychiatr Serv 2005; 56: 324–31.
40Vancampfort, D, Stubbs, B, Ward, PB, Teasdale, S, Rosenbaum, S. Integrating physical activity as medicine in the care of people with severe mental illness. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2015; 49: 681–2.