Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contextual Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Accuracy in Acute and Chronic Schizophrenics Impairment in Selective Attention or in the Influence of Prior Learning?

  • Steven H. Jones (a1), David R. Hemsley (a1) and Jeffrey A. Gray (a2)

Abstract

Two hypotheses were tested concerning the nature of the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: (a) that there is a broadening of selective attention; and (b) that there is an impairment in associational learning. RDC-diagnosed acute and chronic schizophrenics and normal controls carried out a choice reaction time (RT) task in which conflict between the correct response to a target (a letter in the centre of a computer screen) and that cued by simultaneously presented flankers (two letters either side of the target) increased RT. For 80 (‘valid’) trials, flankers and targets were consistent in the response cued (pressing a button with either left or right hand); on 8 (‘invalid’) trials they conflicted. On invalid trials there was a slowing of RT, and an increase of errors for left-hand responses. Chronic schizophrenics showed the same reactions to cue validity as normal controls, both groups differing significantly from acute schizophrenics. For the latter, the RT data supported hypothesis (b), but the error rates appeared to support hypothesis (a).

Copyright

Corresponding author

Department of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF

References

Hide All
Anscombe, R. (1987) The disorder of conciousness in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 241260.
Baker, N., Adler, L. E., Franks, R. D., et al (1987) Neurophysiological assessment of sensory gating in psychiatric inpatients: comparison between schizophrenia and other diagnoses. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 603617.
Baruch, I., Hemsley, D. R. & Gray, J. A. (1988) Differential performance of acute and chronic schizophrenics on a latent inhibition task. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 176, 598606.
Bashore, T. R. (1981) Vocal and manual reaction time estimates of interhemispheric transmission time. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 352368.
Beaumont, J. G. & Dimond, S. (1973) Brain disconnection and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 123, 661662.
Bracha, H. S. (1987) Asymmetric rotational (circling) behaviour, a dopamine-related asymmetry: preliminary findings in unmedicated and never-medicated schizophrenic patients. Biological Psychiatry, 22, 9951002.
Bracha, H. S. (1989) Is there aright hemi-hyper-dopaminergic psychosis? Schizophrenia Research, 2, 317324.
Brennan, H. J. & Hemsley, D. R. (1984) Illusory correlations in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, 225226.
Callaway, E. & Naghdi, S. (1982) Information processing model for schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 339347.
Cegalis, J. A. & Tegtmyer, P. F. (1980) Visual selectivity in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 229235.
Chapman, L. J. & Chapman, J. P. (1973) Disordered Thought in Schizophrenia. New York: Appleton—Century—Crofts.
Crow, T. J. (1980) Part 2: Positive and negative schizophrenic symptoms and the role of dopamine. British Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 383388.
Davis, J. M. (1976) Comparative doses and costs of antipsychotic medication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 858861.
Early, T., Reiman, E. M., Raichle, M. E., et al (1986) Left globus pallidus abnormality in never medicated patients with schizophrenia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 84, 561562.
Early, T., Posner, M. I., Reiman, E. M., et al (1989) Hyperactivity of the left striato-pallidal projection. Part I: Lower level theory. Psychiatric Developments, 2, 85108.
Eriksen, B. A. & Eriksen, C. W. (1974) Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Perception and Psychophysics, 16, 143149.
Flor-Henry, P. (1976) Epilepsy and psychopathology. In Recent Advances in Clinical Psychiatry (ed. Granville-Grossman, K.), pp. 262295. Edinburgh, London: Churchill-Livingstone.
Flor-Henry, P. (1983) Hemisyndrome of temporal lobe epilepsy. In Hemisyndromes (ed. Myslobodsky, M. S.), pp. 149174. Orlando: Academic Press.
George, L. & Neufeld, R. W. J. (1985) Cognition and symptomatology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 11, 264285.
Gray, J. A., Feldon, J., Rawlins, J. N. P., et al (1991a) The neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 156.
Gray, J. A., Hemsley, D. R., Gray, N. S., et al (1991b) Schiz bits: misses, mysteries and hits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 5684.
Gruzelier, J., Seymour, K., Wilson, L., et al (1988) Impairments on neuropsychological tests of temporohippocampal and frontohippocampal functions and word fluency in remitting schizophrenia and affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 623629.
Hemsley, D. R. (1987) An experimental psychological model for schizophrenia. In Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia (eds Hafner, H., Gattaz, W. F. & Janzarik, W.), pp. 179188. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Jakes, S. & Hemsley, D. R. (1986) Individual differences in reaction to brief exposure to unpatterned visual stimulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 121123.
Jones, S. H. (1989) The Kamin Blocking Effect, Incidental Learning and Choice Reaction Time in Acute and Chronic Schizophrenia. PhD thesis, University of London.
Jones, S. H., Gray, J. A. & Hemsley, D. R. (1990) The Kamin blocking effect, incidental learning and psychoticism. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 95110.
McGhie, A. & Chapman, J. (1961) Disorders of attention and perception in early schizophrenia. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 34, 103116.
Miller, J. (1987) Priming is not necessary for selective-attention failures: semantic effects of unattended, unprimed letters. Perception and Psychophysics, 41, 419434.
Neuchterlein, K. H. & Dawson, M. E. (1984) Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 160203.
Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962) The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799812.
Posner, M. I., Walker, J. A., Friedrich, F. J., et al (1984) Effects of parietal lobe injury on covert orienting of visual attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 4, 18631874.
Posner, M. I., Early, T. S., Reiman, E., et al (1988) Asymmetries in hemispheric control of attention in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 814821.
Raven, J. G. (1977) The Mill Hill Vocabulary Scale. London: H. K. Lewis.
Reynolds, G. P. (1983) Increased concentrations and lateral asymmetry of amygdala dopamine in schizophrenia. Nature, 305, 527529.
Rund, B. R. (1988) Cognitive disturbances in schizophrenics: What are they and what is their origin? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 77, 113123.
SAS Institute Inc. (1985) SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 5. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
Schwartz-Place, E. J. & Gilmore, G. C. (1980) Perceptual organisation in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 89, 409418.
Slater, E., Beard, A. W. & Glithero, E. (1963) The schizophrenialike psychoses of epilepsy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 95150.
Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J. & Robbins, E. (1978) Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders (3rd edn). New York: State Psychiatric Institute.
Swerdlow, N. R. & Koob, G. F. (1987) Dopamine, schizophrenia, mania and depression: toward a unified hypothesis of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 197245.
Tukey, J. W. (1949) Comparing individual means in the analysis of variance. Biometrics, 5, 99114.

Contextual Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Accuracy in Acute and Chronic Schizophrenics Impairment in Selective Attention or in the Influence of Prior Learning?

  • Steven H. Jones (a1), David R. Hemsley (a1) and Jeffrey A. Gray (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Contextual Effects on Choice Reaction Time and Accuracy in Acute and Chronic Schizophrenics Impairment in Selective Attention or in the Influence of Prior Learning?

  • Steven H. Jones (a1), David R. Hemsley (a1) and Jeffrey A. Gray (a2)
Submit a response

eLetters

We encountered an error trying to retrieve eLetters for this article. Please try again or contact Customer Services

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *