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Clinical indicators of treatment-resistant psychosis

  • Sophie E. Legge (a1), Charlotte A. Dennison (a2), Antonio F. Pardiñas (a3), Elliott Rees (a4), Amy J. Lynham (a4), Lucinda Hopkins (a5), Lesley Bates (a6), George Kirov (a7), Michael J. Owen (a8), Michael C. O'Donovan (a7) and James T.R. Walters (a7)...

Abstract

Background

Around 30% of individuals with schizophrenia remain symptomatic and significantly impaired despite antipsychotic treatment and are considered to be treatment resistant. Clinicians are currently unable to predict which patients are at higher risk of treatment resistance.

Aims

To determine whether genetic liability for schizophrenia and/or clinical characteristics measurable at illness onset can prospectively indicate a higher risk of treatment-resistant psychosis (TRP).

Method

In 1070 individuals with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorders, schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRS) and large copy number variations (CNVs) were assessed for enrichment in TRP. Regression and machine-learning approaches were used to investigate the association of phenotypes related to demographics, family history, premorbid factors and illness onset with TRP.

Results

Younger age at onset (odds ratio 0.94, P = 7.79 × 10−13) and poor premorbid social adjustment (odds ratio 1.64, P = 2.41 × 10−4) increased risk of TRP in univariate regression analyses. These factors remained associated in multivariate regression analyses, which also found lower premorbid IQ (odds ratio 0.98, P = 7.76 × 10−3), younger father's age at birth (odds ratio 0.97, P = 0.015) and cannabis use (odds ratio 1.60, P = 0.025) increased the risk of TRP. Machine-learning approaches found age at onset to be the most important predictor and also identified premorbid IQ and poor social adjustment as predictors of TRP, mirroring findings from regression analyses. Genetic liability for schizophrenia was not associated with TRP.

Conclusions

People with an earlier age at onset of psychosis and poor premorbid functioning are more likely to be treatment resistant. The genetic architecture of susceptibility to schizophrenia may be distinct from that of treatment outcomes.

Declaration of interest

None.

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Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence: Professor James T. R. Walters, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Hadyn Ellis Building, Maindy Road, Cathays, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK. Email: waltersjt@cardiff.ac.uk

References

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Clinical indicators of treatment-resistant psychosis

  • Sophie E. Legge (a1), Charlotte A. Dennison (a2), Antonio F. Pardiñas (a3), Elliott Rees (a4), Amy J. Lynham (a4), Lucinda Hopkins (a5), Lesley Bates (a6), George Kirov (a7), Michael J. Owen (a8), Michael C. O'Donovan (a7) and James T.R. Walters (a7)...

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Clinical indicators of treatment-resistant psychosis

  • Sophie E. Legge (a1), Charlotte A. Dennison (a2), Antonio F. Pardiñas (a3), Elliott Rees (a4), Amy J. Lynham (a4), Lucinda Hopkins (a5), Lesley Bates (a6), George Kirov (a7), Michael J. Owen (a8), Michael C. O'Donovan (a7) and James T.R. Walters (a7)...
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