Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Carroll Rating Scale for Depression I. Development, Reliability and Validation

  • Bernard J. Carroll (a1), Michael Feinberg (a2), Peter E. Smouse (a3), Sarah G. Rawson (a2) and John F. Greden (a2)...


The Carroll rating scale (CRS) was developed as a self rating instrument for depression, closely matching the information content and specific items of the Hamilton rating scale (HRS). The CRS was found to have acceptable face validity and reliability. The concurrent validity of the CRS was acceptable, based on comparisons with the HRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The internal consistency of the CRS was very similar to that of the HRS. The CRS contained information about HRS scores beyond what could be predicted from BDI scores, but the BDI did not predict HRS scores beyond what could be predicted from CRS scores. The CRS and BDI scores were strongly correlated and both had access to a subjective dimension of depression that could not be predicted from HRS scores. The complementary uses of self ratings and observer ratings are evident from these results. The CRS may be a useful alternative to the BDI as a self rating scale, with the additional advantage of closer correspondence to the HRS.



Hide All
Bailey, J. & Coppen, A. (1976) A comparison between the Hamilton rating scale and the Beck inventory in the measurement of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 486489.
Beck, A. T. (1967) Depression: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Aspects. London: Harper & Row.
Beck, A. T. Ward, C. H. Mendelson, M. Mock, J. & Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561571.
Carroll, B. J. Fielding, J. M. & Blashki, T. G. (1973) Depression rating scales: a critical review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 361366.
Carroll, B. J. Feinberg, M. Greden, J. F. Haskett, R. F. James, N McI ., Steiner, M. & Tarika, J. (1980) Diagnosis of endogenous depression: comparison of clinical, research and neuroendocrine criteria. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2, 177194.
Hamilton, M. (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 5662.
Hamilton, M. (1967) Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278296.
Hedlund, J. L. & Vieweg, B. W. (1979) The Hamilton rating scale for depression: a comprehensive review. Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 10, 149165.
Prusoff, B. A. Klerman, G. L. & Paykel, E. S. (1972) Concordance between clinical assessments and patients' self-report in depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 546552.
Spitzer, R. L. Endicott, J. & Robins, E. (1977) Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders (3rd ed.). New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Weissman, M. M. & Myers, J. K. (1978) Rates and risks of depressive symptoms in a United States urban community. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 57, 219231.
Zung, W. W. K. (1965) A self rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 6370.


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

The Carroll Rating Scale for Depression I. Development, Reliability and Validation

  • Bernard J. Carroll (a1), Michael Feinberg (a2), Peter E. Smouse (a3), Sarah G. Rawson (a2) and John F. Greden (a2)...
Submit a response


No eLetters have been published for this article.


Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *