Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The bicentennial volume of the British Journal of Psychiatry: the winding pathway of mental science

  • Peter Tyrer (a1) and Nick Craddock (a2)

Summary

The Asylum Journal, first published in 1853, is now, as the British Journal of Psychiatry, in its 200th volume. It has changed greatly in its breadth and scope, but its core values and concerns – professional respect, removal of stigma, delivery of care, understanding of pathology, and informed treatment – have remained at its heart throughout. We predict some changes for the future, but not dramatic ones, and conclude that the impinging advances of science will elucidate and refine, but not remove, the need for a journal that is proud to represent psychiatry or, in the words of John Bucknill, its first editor, ‘to render prominent its characteristics and to stamp it as a specialty’.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The bicentennial volume of the British Journal of Psychiatry: the winding pathway of mental science
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The bicentennial volume of the British Journal of Psychiatry: the winding pathway of mental science
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The bicentennial volume of the British Journal of Psychiatry: the winding pathway of mental science
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Peter Tyrer, Editor, British Journal of Psychiatry, 17 Belgrave Square, London SW1X 8PG, UK. Email: bjp@rcpsych.ac.uk

Footnotes

Hide All

The British Journal of Psychiatry was originally founded in 1853 as the Asylum Journal and was known as the Journal of Mental Science from 1859 to 1963.

Declaration of interest

P.T. is Editor of the Journal. N.C. is an Associate Editor, and Honorary Treasurer of the Royal College of Psychiatrists.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1 Walk, A. The centenary of the Journal of Mental Science. J Mental Sci 1953; 99: 633–7.
2 Berrios, GE, Freeman, H. 150 years of British Psychiatry: 1841–1991. Gaskell, 1991.
3 Bewley, T. Madness to Mental Illness: A History of the Royal College of Psychiatrists. RCPsych Publications, 2008.
4 Outterson Wood, T. The early history of the Medico-Psychological Association. Asylum J 1896; 42: 241–60.
5 Bucknill, JC. The diagnosis of insanity. Asylum J 1856; 2: 229–45.
6 Bucknill, JD. Prospectus. Asylum J 1853; 1: 16.
7 Crammer, JL. Training and education in British psychiatry: 1770–1970. In 150 years of British Psychiatry: Volume II – The Aftermath (eds Freeman, H, Berrios, G): 209–42. Athlone Press, 1996.
8 Shorter, E. A History of Psychiatry. John Wiley & Sons, 1997.
9 Craddock, N, Antebi, D, Attenburrow, MJ, Bailey, A, Carson, A, Cowen, P, et al. Wake-up call for British psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry 2008; 193: 69.
10 Walk, A. Medico-psychologists, Maudsley and the Maudsley. Br J Psychiatry 1976; 128: 1930.
11 Turner, T. James Crichton-Browne and the anti-psychoanalysts. In 150 years of British Psychiatry: Volume II – The Aftermath (eds Freeman, H, Berrios, G): 144–55. Athlone Press, 1996.
12 Kecmanovic, D, Hadzi-Pavlovic, D. Psychiatric journals as the mirror of the dominant psychiatric model. Psychiatrist 2010; 34: 172–6.
13 Crammer, JL. Twenty-five years of the British Journal of Psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry 1988; 153: 434–6.
14 Healy, D. The Creation of Psychopharmacology. Harvard University Press, 2002.
15 Kendell, RE. The next 25 years. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 176: 69.
16 Prince, M, Patel, V, Saxena, S, Maj, M, Maselko, J, Phillips, MR, et al. No health without mental health. Lancet 2007; 370: 859–77.
17 Pinfold, V. Time to change – let's end mental health discrimination: the challenges ahead. Br J Psychiatry 2008; 193: 507.
18 Tyrer, P. From the editor's desk. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 578.
19 Bhui, K, Dinos, S. Preventive psychiatry: a paradigm to improve population mental health and well-being. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 417–9.
20 Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Schizophrenia Group. Genome-wide association study identifies five new schizophrenia loci. Nat Genet 2011; 43: 969–76.
21 Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Bipolar Disorder Group. Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4. Nat Genet 2011; 43: 977–83.
22 Owen, MJ, Craddock, N, O'Donovan, MC. Suggestion of roles for both common and rare risk variants in genome-wide studies of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010; 67: 667–73.
23 Craddock, N, Owen, MJ. The Kraepelinian dichotomy – going, going … but still not gone. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 92–5.
24 Owen, MJ, O'Donovan, MC, Thapar, A, Craddock, N. Neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 173–5.
25 Cowen, PJ. Has psychopharmacology got a future? Br J Psychiatry 2011; 198: 333–5.
26 Lewis, S, Lieberman, J. CATIE and CUtLASS: can we handle the truth? Br J Psychiatry 2008; 192: 161–3.
27 Harrison, PJ, Baldwin, DS, Barnes, TRE, Burns, T, Ebmeier, KP, Ferrier, IN, et al. No psychiatry without psychopharmacology. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 199: 263–5.
28 Crawford, MJ, Dunlea, E. Providing patients with information about treatment choices: do unto others? Br J Psychiatry 2010; 197: 429–30.
29 McDaid, D, Knapp, M. Black-skies planning? Prioritising mental health services in times of austerity. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 423–4.
30 Deahl, MP. The Fair Deal campaign: a call to arms. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 197: 12.
31 Craddock, N, Kerr, M, Thapar, A. What is the core expertise of the psychiatrist? Psychiatrist 2010; 34: 457–60.
32 Katschnig, H. Are psychiatrists an endangered species? Observations on internal and external challenges to the profession. World Psychiatry 2010; 9: 21–8.
33 Shah, P, Mountain, D. The medical model is dead – long live the medical model. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 191: 375–7.
34 Bullmore, E, Fletcher, P, Jones, PB. Why psychiatry can't afford to be neurophobic. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 194: 293–5.
35 Brown, TM, Addie, K, Eagles, JM. Recruitment into psychiatry: views of consultants in Scotland. Psychiatr Bull 2007; 31: 411–3.
36 Anonymous. Molecules and minds. Lancet 1994; 343: 681–2.
37 Kendler, KS, First, MB. Alternative futures for the DSM revision process: iteration v. paradigm shift. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 197: 263–5.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

The bicentennial volume of the British Journal of Psychiatry: the winding pathway of mental science

  • Peter Tyrer (a1) and Nick Craddock (a2)
Submit a response

eLetters

Missing links along a winding pathway; Response to Profs Tyrer and Craddock

Ann F. Westmore, Historian of psychiatry
27 March 2012

Professor Tyrer and Craddock's valuable overview of psychiatry's 'winding pathway' during the past 150 or so years says little about two developments that have been of crucial importance to the profession, at least in the eyes of this Australian correspondent.

First, although mention is made of the 'isolated outposts' or asylums/mental hospitals that were psychiatry's heartland throughout the nineteenth and first three-quarters of the twentieth century, the authors overlook the rapid and widespread closures of these institutions and the difficulties facing community psychiatry in providing a viable substitute.In the state of Victoria, for example, the closure of institutions containing several thousand mental hospital beds occurred rapidly and broadly during the 1980s and 1990s, necessitating the development of alternative housing options and community care services. There were also significant law and order implications as patients experiencing acute psychotic episodes were more exposed to the public gaze.

A 1990s study of carers of people with serious mental illnesses who had experienced both inpatient hospital care and Crisis Assessment Team services within the previous five years found that only about half preferred the CAT service model. Many carers were dissatisfied with the short-term interventions provided by CAT teams, and wanted respite from care or responsibility during acute psychotic episodes. The more serious the relapse and the longer the duration of the mental health problem in their loved one, the more likely were carers to prefer hospital care.(1)

Concerns about the implications of increasing numbers of acutely mentally ill people living in the community without necessarily the help and support of carers were raised by psychiatrists and other researchers who surveyed homeless people living in marginal accommodation in Melbourne. The results were reminiscent of US surveys with 20% of respondents having a current diagnosed psychotic illness and 40% having previously been treated in a psychiatric hospital. Evidence from the survey and from the researchers' day to day experience indicated "that theinstances photographed and reported in our newspapers are not isolated, but represent the conditions of life of hundreds, or more likely thousands, of mentally ill people in our community".(2) For most homeless mentally ill people surveyed, severe mental illness preceded homelessness rather than resulted from their life circumstances as people with marginalaccommodation.

A second key development with respect to psychiatry in Australia has been its virtual withdrawal from the field of service provision in the area of severe intellectual disability, while maintaining a strong involvement at the less severe end of the intellectual disability disorderspectrum. Whether this withdrawal reflected a crisis of confidence among psychiatrists about where they could make a serious contribution is a topic worthy of reflection. Doubtess, however, psychiatry's involvement inthis field helped forge the core values that Tyrer and Craddock highlightin its long journey.

References;(1) Megan Fulford and John Farhall, 'Hospital vs home care for the acutelymentally ill?; Preference of carefivers who have experienced both forms ofservice', ANZJP, 35, 2001, pp. 619-625

(2) Helen Herrman, Mental Illness; The public health crisis of our time; 60th Beattie Smith lecture, 1994, p. 9

... More

Conflict of interest: None declared

Write a reply

Response to Profs Tyrer and Craddock

Michael Fitzgerald, Prof.Child Psychiatry
16 February 2012

Dear Sir,

I wish to comment on the phrase in the Editoral by Tyrer and Craddockthat in DSM V "the changes are largely cosmetic". This is probably correct for most of DSM V but not for Autism where a new narrow definitionof Autism is proposed. The broader Autism Phenotype is accepted by professionals in this area of study. A new study has shown that only 60%of patients meet criteria for DSM IV Autism when they are assessed for thecriteria of DSM V Autism. A second error in this area in relation to DSM V is that an aspect of Autism has been split off into a new category called Social Communication Disorder. ICD XI has not made this error. These changes in DSM v in relation to Autism are radical and will lead to patients losing their diagnosis and services.

P. Tyrer N. Craddock The Bicentennial Volume of the British Journal of Psychiatry..the Winding Pathway of Mental Science. BR.J. Psychiatry 2012; 200..1-9.

Y.U. You B.L.Lin WU,Y. Shen a Pilot Study on the Diagnostic Performance of DSM iv and DSM v for Autism Spectrum Disorder. North American Journal of Medicine and Science 2011; 4 (3)..116-123.

... More

Conflict of interest: None declared

Write a reply

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *