American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) . Washington, DC: APA.
Beigel, A., Murphy, D. L. & Bunney, W. E. (1971) The manic-state rating scale: scale construction, reliability and validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 25, 256–262.
Biggio, G., Porceddu, M. L. & Gessa, G. L. (1976) Decrease of homovanillic, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and cyclic-adenosine-3′, 5′-monophosphate content by the acute administration of an amino acid mixture lacking tyrosine and phenylalanine. Journal of Neurochemistry, 26, 1253–1255.
Checkley, S. A. (1980) Neuroendocrine tests of monoamine function in man: a review of basic theory and its application to the study of depressive illness. Psychological Medicine, 10, 35–53.
Chou, J. C., Zito, J. M., Vitrai, J., et al (1996) Neuroleptics in acute mania: a pharmacoepidemiological study. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 30, 1396–1398.
Cole, B. J. & Robbins, T. W. (1992) Forebrain norepinephrine: role in controlled information processing in the rat. Neuropsychopharrnacology, 7, 129–142.
Delgado, P. L., Charney, D. S., Price, L. H., et al (1990) Serotonin function and the mechanism of antidepressant action: reversal of antidepressantinduced remission by rapid depletion of plasma tryptophan. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 411–418.
Furst, P., Pollack, T. A., Graser, H., et al (1990) Appraisal of four pre-column derivatization methods for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of free amino acids in biological materials. Journal of Chromatography, 499, 557–569.
Harmer, C. J., McTavish, S. F. B., Clark, L., et al (2001) Tyrosine depletion attenuates dopamine function in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology, 154, 105–111.
Hoebel, B. G., Hernandez, L., Schwartz, D. H., et al (1989) Microdialysis studies of brain norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine release during ingestive behaviour. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 575, 171–191.
Jacobs, D. & Silverstone, T. (1986) Dextroamphetamine-induced arousal in human subjects as a model for mania. Psychological Medicine, 16, 323–329.
Kapur, S., Zipursky, R., Jones, C., et al (2000) Relationship between dopamine D2 occupancy, clinical response, and side-effects: a double-blind PET study of first episode schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 514–520.
Koelega, H. S. (1993) Stimulant drugs and vigilance performance: a review. Psychopharmacology, 111, 1–16.
Laruelle, M. (1998) Imaging dopamine neurotransmission in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 42, 211–221.
McTavish, S. F. B., Cowen, P. J. & Sharp, T. (1999) Effect of a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture on regional brain catecholamine synthesis and release. Psychopharmacology, 141, 182–188.
McTavish, S. F. B., McPherson, M. H., Sharp, T., et al (1999) Attenuation of some subjective effects of amphetamine following tyrosine depletion. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 144–147.
Pardridge, W. M. (1977) Kinetics of competitive inhibition of neutral amino acid transport across the blood brain barrier. Journal of Neurochemistry, 28, 103–108.
Pilla, M., Perachon, S., Sautel, F., et al (1999) Selective inhibition of cocaine-seeking behaviour by a partial dopamine D3 receptor agonist. Nature, 400, 371–375.
Robbins, T. W., James, T., Owen, A. M., et al (1994) CANTAB: a factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers. Dementia, 5, 266–281.
Sharp, T., Zetterstrom, T., Ljundberg, T., et al (1987) A direct comparison of amphetamine-induced behaviours and regional brain dopamine release in the rat using intracerebral dialysis. Brain Research, 401, 322–330.
Sheehan, B. D., Tharyan, P., McTavish, S. F. B., et al (1996) Use of a dietary manipulation to deplete plasma tyrosine and phenylalanine in healthy subjects. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 10, 231–234.
Silverstone, T. (1983) The clinical pharmacology of appetite – its relevance to psychiatry. Psychological Medicine, 13, 251–253.
Smith, K. A., Fairburn, C. G. & Cowen, P. J. (1997) Relapse of depression after rapid depletion of tryptophan. Lancet, 349, 915–919.
Wurtman, R. J., Hefti, F. & Melamed, E. (1981) Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacological Reviews, 10, 315–335.
Young, R. C., Biggs, J. T., Ziegler, V. E., et al (1978) A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 429–435.