Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-67gxp Total loading time: 0.407 Render date: 2021-02-26T05:49:09.356Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Cantabria First-Episode Schizophrenia Study: three-year follow-up

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

José L. Vázquez-Barquero
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and the Clinical and Social Psychiatry Research Unit, University Hospital ‘Marqués de Valdecilla’, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Maria J. Cuesta
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital ‘Marqués de Valdecilla’, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Sara Herrera Castanedo
Affiliation:
Clinical and Social Psychiatry Research Unit, University Hospital ‘Marqués de Valdecilla’, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Ismael Lastra
Affiliation:
Psychiatric Hospital ‘Padre Menni’, Santander, Spain
Andrés Herrán
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and the Clinical and Social Psychiatry Research Unit, University Hospital ‘Marqués de Valdecilla’, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain
Graham Dunn
Affiliation:
School of Epidemiology & Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

Abstract

Background

We present the findings from the three-year follow-up of all first episodes of schizophrenia occurring during a two-year period in Cantabria (in Spain).

Aims

(a) To describe the clinical characteristics of the illness from the early stages of the disease, and (b) to study the long-term psychosocial adjustment and psychopathological evolution of these patients, identifying predictors for the course of the illness.

Method

Of the original cohort of 86 patients, 76 (88.3%) were fully evaluated at three-year follow-up. Psychiatric assessment was performed (PSE–9 and SANS/SAPS). Social adjustment was evaluated using the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS). Information regarding the clinical evolution and use of health resources was also gathered.

Results

The majority of patients with a first-contact diagnosis of schizophrenia failed to meet the criteria for a CATEGO diagnosis at follow-up. The SANS/SAPS assessments revealed a doubling in the proportion of patients with ‘negative schizophrenia’. The pattern of clinical course was also evaluated, with 24 (31.5%) of the patients having a good outcome. Being male and having low social class tended to be associated with poor clinical outcome.

Conclusions

The outcome of schizophrenia is less pessimistic than was originally thought.

Type
Papers
Copyright
Copyright © 1999 The Royal College of Psychiatrists 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

Declaration of interest Funding provided by the Spanish lnstituteof Health.

References

Andreasen, N. C. (1913) The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa.Google Scholar
Andreasen, N. C. (1984) The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa.Google Scholar
Andreasen, N. C. & Olsen, S. (1982) Negative versus positive schizophrenia: definition and validation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 789794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Childers, S. E. & Harding, C. M. (1990) Gender, premorbid social functioning, and long-term outcome in DSM–III schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 16, 309318.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crow, T. J. (1990) Nature of the genetic contribution to psychotic illness: a continuum viewpoint. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81, 401408.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eaton, W. W., Thara, R., Federman, E., et al (1998) Remission and relapse in schizophrenia: the Madras longitudinal study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186, 357363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Geddes, J., Mercer, G., Frith, C. D., et al (1994) Prediction of outcome following a first episode of schizophrenia. A follow-up study of Northwick Park first-episode study subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 664668.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gittelman-Klein, R. & Klein, D. F. (1969) Premorbid social adjustment and prognosis in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 7, 3553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Goldstein, J. M. & Tsuang, M. T. (1990) Gender and schizophrenia: an introduction and synthesis of findings. Schizophrenic Bulletin, 16, 179183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Häfner, H. & Maurer, K. (1991) Are there two types of schizophrenia? True onset and sequence of positive and negative syndromes prior to first admission. In Negative versus Positive Schizophrenia (eds Marneros, A., Andreasen, N. C. & Tsuang, M. T.). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
Jablensky, A., Schwarz, R. & Tomov, T. (1980) WHO collaborative study on impairments and disabilities associated with schizophrenic disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 62, 285292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jablensky, A., Schwarz, R. & Tomov, T. (1985) WHO Collaborative Study on Impairments and Disabilities Associated with Schizophrenic Disorders. Geneva: World Health Organization Division on Mental Health.Google Scholar
Johnstone, E. C., Crown, T. J., Johnson, A. L., et al (1986) The Northwick Park study of first episodes of schizophrenia: I. Presentation of the illness and problems relating to admission. British Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 115120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kokes, R. F., Strauss, J. S. & Klorman, R. (1977) Premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia. Part II: Measuring premorbid adjustment: the instruments and their development. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 3, 186213.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kulhara, P. & Chandiramani, K. (1990) Positive and negative subtypes of schizophrenia. A follow-up study from India. Schizophrenia Research, 3, 107116.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marneros, A., Deister, A. & Rohode, A. (1992) Validity of the negative/positive dichotomy for schizophrenic disorders under long term conditions. Schizophrenia Research, 7, 117123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, P., Harrison, G., Glazebrook, C., et al (1995) Characteristics of outcome in schizophrenia at 13 years. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 596603.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, P., Harrison, G., Glazebrook, C., et al (1996) The course of schizophrenia over 13 years. A report from the International Study on Schizophrenia (ISoS) coordinated by the World Health Organization. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 580586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Obiols, J. E., Salvador, L., Humbert, M., et al (1985) Evaluación de los síntomas negativos de la esquizofrenia. Revista Departamento Psiquiatría Facultad de Mediana de Barcelona, 12, 8591.Google Scholar
Ram, R., Bromet, E. J., Eaton, W. W., et al (1992) The natural course of schizophrenia: a review of first admission studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 185207.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salokangas, R. & Stengard, E. (1990) Gender and short-term outcome in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 3, 333345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Salvador, L., Obiols, J. E., Humbert, M., et al (1985) Evaluacíon de tos síntomas positivos en la esquizofrenia. Revisto Departamento Psiquiatría Facultad de Medicina de Barcelona, 12, 92102.Google Scholar
Sartorius, N., Jabiensky, A., Korten, A., et al (1986) Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures. Psychological Medicine, 16, 909928.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group (1992) The Scottish first episode schizophrenia study VIII. Five-year follow-up: clinical and psychosocial findings. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 496500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shepherd, M., Watt, D., Falloon, I., et al (1989) The natural history of schizophrenia: a five year follow-up of outcome and prediction in a representative sample of schizophrenics. Psychological Medicine. Monograph Supplement, 15, 146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stata Corporation (1995) Stata Statistical Software: Release 4.0 for Windows 5.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation.Google Scholar
Subotnik, K. L., Nuechteriein, K. H., Asarnow, R. F., et al (1997) Depressive symptoms in the early course of schizophrenia: relationship to familial psychiatric illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 15511556.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thara, R., Henrietta, M., Joseph, A., et al (1994) Ten-year course of schizophrenia. The Madras longitudinal study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavico, 90, 329336.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vázquez-Barquero, J. L., Díez Manrique, J. F., Pefia, C., et al (1987) A community mental health survey in Cantabria: a general description of morbidity. Psychological Medicine, 17, 227241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vázquez-Barquero, , Cuesta Nuffez, M. J., de la Verge, M., et al (1995a) The Cantabria first episode schizophrenia study: a summary of general findings. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinovica, 91, 156162.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vázquez-Barquero, , Nuffez, Cuesta, Cuesta Nuffez, M. J., Quintana Pando, F., et al (1995b) Structural abnormalities of the brain in schizophrenia: sex differences in the Cantabria first episode schizophrenia study. Psychological Medicine, 25, 12471257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vázquez-Barquero, , Nuffez, Cuesta, Cuesta Nuffez, M. J. & Herrera Castanedo, S. (1996a) Socio-demographic and clinical variables as predictors of the diagnostic characteristics of first episodes of schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 94, 149155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vázquez-Barquero, , Nuffez, Cuesta, Lastra, I., Cuesta Nufiez, M. J., et al (1996b) Patterns of positive and negative symptoms in first episode schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 693701.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wiersma, D., Giel, R., de Jong, A., et al (1988) Schizophrenia: results of a cohort study with respect to cost-accounting problems of pattern of mental health care in relation to course of illness. In Cost and Effects of Managing Chronic Psychotic Patients (eds Schwefel, D., Zollner, H. & Potthoff, P.). pp. 115125. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiersma, D., Nienhuis, F. J., Slooff, C. J., et al (1998) Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year follow-up of a Dutch incidence cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24, 7585.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wieseigren, M. I. & Lindström, L. H. (1996) A prospective 1–5 year outcome study in first-admitted and readmitted schizophrenic patients; relationship to heredity, premorbid adjustment, duration of disease and education level at index admission and neuroleptic treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. & Sartorhls, N. (1974) Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms: and Instruction Manual for PSE and CATEGO Program. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 41 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 02nd January 2018 - 26th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Cantabria First-Episode Schizophrenia Study: three-year follow-up
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Cantabria First-Episode Schizophrenia Study: three-year follow-up
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Cantabria First-Episode Schizophrenia Study: three-year follow-up
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *