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Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the evolution of the central stars of planetary nebulae (NPN) compared to the situation five years ago at the Ithaca Symposium where Shaviv (1978) and Paczynski (1978) reviewed the subject. Shaviv stressed the necessity to start theoretical calculations with realistic initial models but doubted - in view of the loops in the HR diagram made by flashing stars - if the Harman-Seaton sequence could be taken as a single evolutionary sequence. Paczynski pointed out how strongly the theoretical rate of evolution depends on the stellar mass - a result which had appeared in his earlier calculations (1971) - and expected the existence of more flashing NPN's of the FG Sagittae type among the luminous (L > 104 L⊙) central stars, for which the core mass luminosity relation (Mc > 0.7 M⊙) combined with the core mass interpulse time relation predicts fairly short (2.10 yrs) intervals between flashing events. Weidemann, however, at the Symposium and shortly thereafter (1977a) concluded in view of the lower effective temperature derived by Pottasch et al. (1978) and the observed narrow mass distribution of white dwarfs around a 0.6 Mo. combined with the theoretical predicted horizontal tracks from the red giant branch towards the NPN region at a luminosity given by the core mass luminosity relation that the high luminosity part (and also the “upturn”) of the Harman-Seaton sequence does not exist. He also proposed an increase in the distances by an average factor of 1.3 compared to the Seaton/Webster (Seaton, 1968) or Cahn/Kaler (1971) scale in order to bring the observed NPN on the 0.6 M⊙ track in the HR diagram and to lower the NPN birth rates to a value compatible with white dwarf birth rates.