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Aventinus and the Defense of the Empire against the Turks

  • Gunther E. Rothenberg (a1)

Extract

In the late fifteenth and throughout the sixteenth century the revival of interest in classical civilization had a distinct effect on military theory and practice. The study of Roman military methods especially became a source of inspiration for reformers and Machiavelli's Arte della Guerra ranks only as the most famous in a long line of treatises which intended to revive the art of war as the ancients had understood it. During this era military theorists steeped themselves in classical lore, rediscovered the virtues of the Roman legion, became familiar once more with cohort and maniple.

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1 On the Writing of History (New York, 1939), p. 159. For a more favorable view see Theodore Ropp, War in the Modern World (Durham, N. C , 1959), pp. 10-12.

2 This topic was discussed by numerous humanist writers from Leonardo Bruni (De militia, 1492) to Justus Lipsius (De militia Romana, 1595). Cf. Felix Gilbert, ‘Machiavelli: the Renaissance of the Art of War', in Makers of Modern Strategy, ed. E.J. Earle (Princeton, 1943), pp. 3-25, and Gerhard Oestreich, ‘Der romische Stoizismus und die oranische Heeresreform', Historische Zeitschrift CLXXVI (1953), 17-43.

3 See Karl Schottenloher, Bibliographie zur deutschen Geschichte itn Zeitalter der Glaubensspaltung 1517-1585 (2d ed., Stuttgart, 1957), IV, 677-683.

4 Delbriick, Hans, Geschichte der Kriegskunst (Berlin, 1919), IV, 174-175; Oman, Charles, History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century (New York, 1937), p. 757 ; and Fueter, Eduard, Geschichte des Europaischen Staatmsy stems von 1492-1550 (Munich, 1919), pp. 182-185.

5 Rothenberg, Gunther E., The Austrian Military Border in Croatia, 1522-1747 (Urbana, 111., 1960), pp. 9-11.

6 Ibid., pp. 5-6.

7 Ibid.

8 For further references see Gunther E. Rothenberg, ‘The Origins of the Austrian Military Frontier in Croatia', Slavonic and East European Review XXXVIII (1960), 493-498.

9 Delbriick, IV, 111-112.

10 There is no modern biography. I understand that Professor Gerald Strauss is now preparing such a work. For a short life of Aventinus see that by Wilhelm Vogt prefaced to Johannes Turmair,genannt Aventinus, sämtliche Werke (Munich, 1880-1908, Akademie d. Wissenschaften zu Miinchen), hereafter cited as Werke.

11 Ain warnis und anzaigung der ursach, warumb got der her dem Tiirken als ainen verfolger christlichen glaubens und names so vil sigs wider uns christen gebe', Werke, I, 172-242, and Anzaigung, wie und in was wege das alt romisch reich sein kriegsregiment mit den gestiften kriegsleuten hab gestelt und ausgereicht und wie man noch auf heutigen tag, wil man anderst dem Tiirken ain plaiblichen widerstand tun, solche ordnung aufrichten mocht', ibid., pp. 243-253.

12 A. V. Druffel, ‘Bemerkungen iiber Aventin's Schriften: Tiirkenwarnung und R6- misches Kriegsregiment', Sitzungsberichte d. philos.-philolog. u. hist. Classe der kgl. bayr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften zu Miinchen 1 (1879), 337-364.

13 Werke, I, 172.

14 Ibid., p. 194

15 Ibid., pp. 196-201.

16 Ibid., pp. 216-218.

17 ‘1st ain gross plag von gott class die so leib und leben für den gemainen nutz, fiir land und leut müssen sezen, mussen betlen gen, haben kain gestifte pfrüend’ (ibid., p . 216).

18 ‘Das altrömisch reich hat allzeit sein anzall gestifts kriegsvolks gehabt, audi ir gestifte pfriiend, giieter, lehen, land und besonder freiheit mit weib und kinder … wie izo die gaistlichen haben’ (ibid.).

19 Ibid., p. 217.

20 Ibid.

21 ‘Der gemain man lauft nit gar ler, geht nit gar ler ausz’ (ibid., p. 220).

22 Ibid., pp. 222-224.

23 Ibid., pp. 241-242.

24 Ibid., p. 244.

25 ‘Die drungen immerzue mit der zeit gegen der feind land, wie izo der Türk tuet' (ibid., p. 245).

26 Ibid., p. 247.

27 Ibid., p. 252.

28 See F. L. Taylor, The Art of War in Italy, I492-1529 (Cambridge, 1921), pp. 167-168, and Machiavelli, Discorsi, bk. II, ch. x.

29 Rothenberg, Military Border, pp. 21-23.

30 Ibid., pp. 28-29.

31 Ibid., pp. 29-31.

32 Ibid., pp. 34-35.

Aventinus and the Defense of the Empire against the Turks

  • Gunther E. Rothenberg (a1)

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